Vhdl-moving-average-example

Vhdl-moving-average-example

Binary-option-secret-pdf
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Kami menghargai tulisan akademis yang bagus dan berusaha memberikan layanan penulisan esai yang luar biasa setiap kali Anda melakukan pemesanan. Kami menulis esai, makalah penelitian, makalah, karya studi, ulasan, tesis dan banyak lagi, jadi misi utama kami adalah membantu Anda sukses secara akademis. Yang terpenting, kami bangga dengan tim kami yang berdedikasi, yang memiliki kreativitas dan pemahaman akan kebutuhan klien kami. Penulis kami selalu mengikuti instruksi Anda dan membawa gagasan baru ke meja, yang tetap merupakan bagian besar dari kesuksesan dalam menulis sebuah esai. Kami menjamin keaslian kertas Anda, apakah itu esai atau disertasi. Selanjutnya, kami memastikan kerahasiaan informasi pribadi Anda, jadi kemungkinan seseorang akan mengetahui tentang kerja sama kami tidak ada duanya. Kami tidak membagikan informasi Anda kepada siapapun. Ketika sampai pada penulisan esai, sebuah penelitian mendalam adalah masalah besar. Penulis berpengalaman kami profesional dalam berbagai bidang pengetahuan sehingga mereka dapat membantu Anda dalam hampir semua tugas akademis. Kami mengirimkan makalah dengan berbagai jenis: esai, tesis, ulasan buku, studi kasus, dll. Saat mendelegasikan pekerjaan Anda ke salah satu penulis kami, Anda dapat yakin bahwa kami akan: Menggunakan gaya tulisan Anda Ikuti panduan Anda Buat semua koreksi yang diperlukan kapanpun Yang perlu Temui bahkan tenggat waktu yang paling ketat Sediakan halaman judul dan bibliografi gratis. Kami memiliki ribuan pelanggan yang puas yang telah merekomendasikan kami ke teman mereka. Mengapa tidak mengikuti teladan mereka dan menempatkan pesanan Anda hari ini Pilih Profesional Kami untuk Melengkapi Tugas Menulis Anda Jika tenggat waktu Anda hanya sekitar sudut dan Anda memiliki banyak kursus menumpuk, hubungi kami dan kami akan meringankan beban akademis Anda. Kami siap untuk mengembangkan kertas unik sesuai dengan kebutuhan Anda, tidak peduli seberapa ketat mereka. Pakar kami menciptakan karya tulis yang membuat pelanggan kami tidak hanya memiliki nilai tinggi tapi juga reputasi yang solid dari para profesor yang menuntut. Jangan buang waktu Anda dan memesan layanan penulisan esai kami hari ini Penulis kami memegang gelar Ph.D. Dan gelar Master dan memiliki pengalaman yang cukup banyak di bidang yang beragam. Slide menggunakan cookies untuk meningkatkan fungsionalitas dan kinerja, dan memberi Anda iklan yang relevan. Jika Anda terus browsing situs, Anda setuju dengan penggunaan cookies di situs ini. Lihat Perjanjian Pengguna dan Kebijakan Privasi kami. Slideshare menggunakan cookies untuk meningkatkan fungsionalitas dan performa, dan memberi Anda iklan yang relevan. Jika Anda terus browsing situs, Anda setuju dengan penggunaan cookies di situs ini. Lihat Kebijakan Privasi dan Perjanjian Pengguna kami untuk rinciannya. Jelajahi semua topik favorit Anda di aplikasi SlideShare Dapatkan aplikasi SlideShare untuk Simpan untuk Nanti bahkan secara offline Terus ke situs mobile Upload Masuk Signup Ketuk dua kali untuk memperkecil Perancangan 8 BIT Unit Aritmatika dan Logika dan implementasikan pada Xilinx Vertex 4 FPGA Share this slideShare LinkedIn Corporation copy 2017Produk Pengembangan Produk Baru Kelompok Kerja Industri Otomotif terdiri dari produsen mobil Big 3 yang telah berkolaborasi mengembangkan standar seperti QS-9000 dan APQP (lihat Perencanaan Mutu Produk Lanjutan). Model Interpretasi Aplikasi (STEP) 8211 Model yang menggambarkan interpretasi konstruksi sumber daya terpadu LANGKAH yang memberikan kesetaraan fungsional terhadap persyaratan informasi AP8217 seperti yang ditentukan dalam model referensi aplikasi. Dokumentasi informasi yang dibutuhkan untuk AIM mencakup deskripsi entitas model informasi tersebut dan rangkuman alasan dimana skema yang dihasilkan berasal dari model referensi aplikasi. Pengujian pengguna produk baru di-rumah (dibandingkan dengan beta testing yang sebenarnya atau pelanggan potensial atau pengguna di lapangan). Pengujian mungkin dilakukan di laboratorium, area pengujian pengguna atau bahkan di lapangan oleh personil perusahaan. Persyaratan yang dialokasikan adalah persyaratan yang membagi semua atau sebagian dari kinerja dan fungsi persyaratan tingkat yang lebih tinggi pada elemen tingkat yang lebih rendah dari sebuah sistem. Analisis Variance Analysis of Varians adalah teknik statistik dasar untuk menganalisa data eksperimen. Ini membagi variasi total kumpulan data menjadi bagian komponen yang bermakna yang terkait dengan sumber variasi tertentu untuk menguji hipotesis pada parameter model atau untuk memperkirakan varians komponen. Accelerated Life Testing Analytical Hierarchy Process Alat pengambilan keputusan untuk masalah kompleks dan multi kriteria dimana aspek kualitatif dan kuantitatif dari suatu masalah perlu digabungkan. AHP mengumpulkan elemen keputusan sesuai dengan karakteristik umum mereka ke dalam struktur hirarkis yang mirip dengan pohon keluarga. Ini melibatkan membangun hierarki (Peringkat) elemen keputusan dan kemudian membuat perbandingan antara masing-masing pasangan yang mungkin di setiap cluster (sebagai matriks). Ini memberikan bobot untuk setiap elemen di dalam cluster (atau tingkat hierarki) dan juga rasio konsistensi (berguna untuk memeriksa konsistensi data). Dengan mengurangi keputusan kompleks untuk serangkaian perbandingan dan rangking sederhana, kemudian mensintesis hasilnya, AHP membantu sampai pada keputusan terbaik dan juga memberikan alasan yang jelas untuk pilihan yang dibuat. Model Proses Hirarki Analitik dirancang oleh TL Saaty sebagai alat bantu pengambilan keputusan. Lihat Analisis Variance American National Standards Institute Penentuan Kegagalan Antisipatif Penentuan Kegagalan Antisipatif (AFD) adalah metode analisis kegagalan. Seperti FMEA, ia memiliki tujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengurangi kegagalan. Alih-alih meminta pengembang untuk mencari sebab dari mode kegagalan, ini akan membalikkan masalah dengan meminta pengembang untuk melihat kegagalan kepentingan sebagai konsekuensi yang dituduhkan dan mencoba memikirkan cara untuk memastikan bahwa kegagalan selalu terjadi dengan andal. Sudut pandang ini kemudian memfasilitasi langkah identifikasi yang lebih baik untuk menghindari kegagalan tersebut. Protokol Aplikasi Inspeksi Optik Otomatis (STEP) 8211 Ini menetapkan spesifikasi data LANGKAH yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengkomunikasikan informasi dalam konteks aplikasi yang ditentukan. Ini mendefinisikan konteks untuk penggunaan data produk dan menentukan penggunaan standar dasar dalam konteks tersebut untuk memenuhi kebutuhan industri. AP8217 adalah Bagian dalam rangkaian 200 standar LANGKAH. 1. Application Protocol Interface 2. Application Programming Interface 8211 seperangkat fungsi standar yang disediakan oleh sebuah program atau sistem operasi untuk memungkinkan integrasi perangkat lunak lain. Dua program yang terhubung melalui API dapat diubah dan tetap bekerja sama selama keduanya sesuai dengan API. Penugasan tujuan seperti keandalan dari sistem ke subsistem sedemikian rupa sehingga keseluruhan sistem akan memenuhi tujuan yang diinginkan. Lihat Perencanaan Mutu Produk Lanjut Lihat Mutu Mutu Rencana Desain dan interkoneksi komponen utama dari perangkat lunak perangkat keras. Kerangka kerja dan keterkaitan unsur-unsur suatu sistem. Prinsip Arsitektur adalah pernyataan arahan atau praktik arsitektural yang disukai. Setiap prinsip harus dinyatakan sedemikian rupa sehingga orang akan tahu apakah arsitektur memiliki karakteristik yang dinyatakan oleh prinsip. Prinsip perlu dirasionalisasi, menyatakan mengapa prinsip tersebut lebih diutamakan. Akronim Rusia untuk Algoritma Pemecahan Masalah Inventif (lihat Teori Penyelesaian Masalah Inventif) Model Referensi Aplikasi (STEP) 8211 Model informasi yang secara formal menjelaskan persyaratan dan batasan informasi untuk area aplikasi. Model informasi menggunakan terminologi dan aturan aplikasi khusus yang familiar bagi pakar dari area aplikasi. Model ini terlepas dari implementasi fisik dan harus divalidasi oleh para ahli dari area aplikasi. Setelah menerima pesanan 8211 biasanya merupakan ukuran hari, minggu atau bulan sampai produk dapat dirancang dan diserahkan. AS9100 adalah standar manajemen mutu internasional untuk industri kedirgantaraan yang diterbitkan oleh Society of Automotive Engineers yang juga diterbitkan oleh organisasi lain di seluruh dunia, seperti EN9100 di Eropa dan JIS Q 9100 di Jepang. Standar ini dikendalikan oleh International Aerospace Quality Group. Application Specific Integrated Circuit 8211 merupakan chip semi custom yang digunakan pada aplikasi spesifik yang disain dengan mengintegrasikan sel standar dari sebuah perpustakaan. Penyebab yang Ditetapkan merupakan sumber variasi yang bukan karena kebetulan dan oleh karena itu dapat diidentifikasi dan dieliminasi. Penyebab yang dapat dialihkan sering ditandai oleh jumlah titik data yang berlebihan di luar batas kontrol dan atau pola non-acak dalam batas kontrol. Juga disebut 8220 penyebab khusus8221. Hubungan antara dua fungsi yang berbeda dalam sistem CAD yang memastikan bahwa perubahan yang dilakukan di satu area tercermin di semua bidang lainnya. Sebagai contoh, perubahan pada model solid akan tercermin dalam gambar dan program CAM terkait. Keterlibatan bi-directional menunjukkan bahwa pembaruan terjadi di kedua arah di antara fungsi. Misalnya, perubahan pada gambar akan tercermin dalam model padatannya. Standar Aplikasi Bagian 8211 merupakan chip yang pada awalnya dirancang sebagai ASIC dan kemudian dilepaskan untuk penggunaan umum. American Society for Testing and Materials Asynchronous Groupware adalah perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk membantu orang bekerja dalam kelompok, namun tidak mengharuskan orang tersebut untuk bekerja sama pada saat bersamaan (asinkron tidak berkoordinasi pada satu titik waktu saja). Lihat Alat Uji Otomatis Peralatan Uji Otomatis Peralatan Uji Otomatis Peralatan Uji Otomatis (ATE) yang dibangun untuk melakukan tes atau urutan pengujian. ATE berkisar dari perangkat sederhana untuk memverifikasi kontinuitas mekanis atau elektrikal terhadap sistem komputerisasi canggih dengan sekuensing otomatis, pemrosesan data, dan pembacaan. ATE mungkin berdiri sendiri unit uji atau mungkin dibangun ke dalam peralatan operasional. Generasi Pola Uji Otomatis Pola Uji Otomatis Generasi adalah proses yang menggunakan daftar kesalahan dan model rangkaian untuk menganalisis sifat logis dan topikal rangkaian untuk membuat vektor uji untuk setiap kesalahan dan, dengan demikian, menghasilkan kesalahan tinggi. -coverage test pattern untuk disain. Metrik produk yang menentukan persentase waktu produk tersedia dan operasional untuk penggunaan pelanggan. Ini adalah proporsi dari total waktu bahwa item peralatan mampu melakukan fungsi yang ditentukan, biasanya dinyatakan sebagai persentase. Hal ini dapat dihitung dengan membagi jam peralatan yang tersedia dengan jumlah jam dalam periode tertentu. Desain aksiomatis mengenali empat domain. Kebutuhan pelanggan diidentifikasi dalam domain pelanggan dan dinyatakan dalam bentuk fungsionalitas yang dipersyaratkan dari suatu produk di domain fungsional. Parameter desain yang memenuhi persyaratan fungsional didefinisikan dalam domain fisik, dan dalam domain proses, variabel manufaktur menentukan bagaimana produk akan diproduksi. Alternatif solusi dibuat dengan memetakan persyaratan yang ditentukan dalam satu domain ke satu set parameter karakteristik dalam domain yang berdekatan. Pemetaan antara pelanggan dan domain fungsional didefinisikan sebagai konsep desain pemetaan antara domain fungsional dan fisik adalah desain produk pemetaan antara domain fisik dan proses sesuai dengan desain proses. Output dari masing-masing domain berevolusi dari konsep abstrak hingga informasi terperinci secara top-down atau hierarkis. Dua aksioma desain memberikan dasar rasional untuk evaluasi alternatif solusi yang diusulkan dan pemilihan alternatif terbaik berikutnya. Aksioma pertama adalah aksioma independen, dan ini menyatakan bahwa desain yang baik mempertahankan independensi persyaratan fungsional. Aksioma kedua adalah aksioma informasi dan ia menetapkan kandungan informasi sebagai ukuran relatif untuk mengevaluasi dan membandingkan solusi alternatif yang dapat memenuhi aksioma kemerdekaan. Teknik pengukuran kinerja yang komprehensif yang mempertimbangkan empat bidang kinerja secara seimbang: 1) perspektif pelanggan 8211 bagaimana pelanggan melihat kita, 2) perspektif internal 8211 apa yang harus kita pahami, 3) inovasi belajar 8211 bagaimana kita terus memperbaiki dan menciptakan Nilai, 4) perspektif keuangan 8211 bagaimana kita memenuhi kebutuhan pemegang saham. Kursi Bath Tub merupakan tingkat kegagalan komponen selama umur produk. Kemiringan ke atas di awal dan akhir menunjukkan bahwa kebanyakan komponen juga gagal baik (pada awal kehidupan produk) atau menjelang akhir kehidupan produk yang diharapkan. Bahasa pemotong biner Bahasa yang bisa ditafsirkan secara komputer digunakan untuk mengendalikan peralatan mesin. Lihat Break Even After Release Behavioral Modeling mendefinisikan suatu produk dalam hal perilaku yang dibutuhkan daripada hubungan antara elemen geometri untuk produk mekanis atau hubungan antara komponen, gerbang dan register untuk produk elektronik. Misalnya, penggunaan bahasa deskripsi perangkat keras (lihat Hardware Description Language) adalah alat untuk mendeskripsikan model perilaku untuk produk elektronik. The Belief Map adalah metode grafis yang mewakili tingkat pengetahuan dan kepercayaan relatif. Ini adalah plot yang sumbu horisontalnya mewakili pengetahuan evaluator8217 tentang, misalnya, kemampuan konsep untuk memenuhi persyaratan tertentu. Sumbu vertikal akan mewakili kepercayaan evaluator8217s dalam kemampuan concept8217s untuk memenuhi persyaratan tersebut. Suatu proses perbaikan di mana perusahaan mengukur kinerja produk atau prosesnya dengan produk atau perusahaan terbaik di kelasnya, menentukan bagaimana produk atau perusahaan mencapai tingkat kinerja mereka, dan menggunakan informasi tersebut untuk meningkatkan kinerjanya. Praktik Terbaik adalah metode unggul atau praktik inovatif yang berkontribusi terhadap peningkatan kinerja sebuah organisasi, yang biasanya dikenal sebagai 8220best8221 oleh organisasi rekan lainnya. Pengujian Beta adalah pengujian versi perangkat lunak atau perangkat keras yang hampir selesai, dengan tujuan menemukan cacat yang tidak terjawab oleh para pengembang. Pengujian beta secara genital dilakukan oleh orang-orang di luar organisasi pengembang seperti pelanggan atau pengguna aktual atau potensial. Polinomial digunakan untuk menggambarkan kurva dan permukaan kompleks. Ball Grid Array 8211 merupakan teknologi pengemasan elektronik dimana bola solder dipasang ke bagian bawah paket dalam susunan grid dan dialirkan untuk menempel pada PCB8217s. Bill of Material Bill of Material (BOM) adalah daftar hierarki subassemblies, komponen dan atau bahan baku yang membentuk komponen, perakitan, produk atau sistem tingkat tinggi. Teknik BOM mewakili struktur perakitan yang tersirat oleh daftar komponen pada gambar dan struktur pohon gambar. BOM manufaktur merepresentasikan perakitan dengan cara pembuatan produk. Teknik kreativitas di mana sekelompok orang memikirkan gagasan yang terkait dengan topik tertentu, mencatat gagasan sebanyak mungkin sebelum evaluasi kritis terhadap gagasan dilakukan. Sebuah nama, istilah, desain, simbol, atau fitur lain yang mengidentifikasi satu barang atau jasa penjual yang berbeda dari penjual lainnya. Istilah hukum merek adalah merek dagang. Merek dapat mengidentifikasi satu item, keluarga item, atau semua item dari penjual itu. Break Even Setelah Pelepasan Rilis Bahkan Setelah Melepaskan 8211 sebuah metrik yang mengukur waktu setelah peluncuran produk untuk produksi atau penjualan sampai produk tersebut mencapai titik impas keuangan mengingat investasi dalam pengembangan dan biaya tidak berulang lainnya. Break Even Time 8211 merupakan metrik yang mengukur waktu sejak dimulainya pembangunan melalui produksi dan penjualan sampai produk tersebut mencapai titik impas keuangan mengingat investasi dalam pengembangan dan biaya tidak berulang lainnya. Representasi Boundary 8211 pendekatan pemodelan padatan berdasarkan pada permukaan eksterior yang mewakili solid (berlawanan dengan geometri padat konstruktif). Metode interpolasi matematis untuk menggambarkan kurva dan permukaan kompleks Built-in-Self-Test 8211 merupakan fitur pengujian otomatis dimana banyak program pola uji dibangun langsung ke sirkuit umumnya untuk pengujian gono-go pada perakitan atau rangkaian dengan menggunakan analisis tanda tangan. Business Case mengacu pada hasil analisis pasar, teknik dan keuangan yang digunakan untuk membenarkan kelayakan suatu produk baru. Idealnya ditetapkan sebelum keputusan pembangunan (keputusan), kasus tersebut mendefinisikan produk dan proyek, termasuk pembenaran proyek dan tindakan atau rencana bisnis. Reengineering Proses Bisnis Reengineering Business Process (BPR) adalah analisis dan perancangan ulang alur kerja di dalam dan antar perusahaan. Penulis Michael Hammer dan James Champy mempromosikan gagasan BPR sebagai perancangan ulang radikal dan reorganisasi perusahaan untuk menurunkan biaya dan meningkatkan kualitas layanan. Mereka menyarankan tujuh prinsip rekayasa ulang untuk merampingkan proses kerja dan dengan demikian mencapai tingkat peningkatan kualitas, manajemen waktu, dan biaya yang signifikan: 1) mengatur sekitar hasil, bukan tugas 2) mengidentifikasi semua proses dalam sebuah organisasi dan memprioritaskannya sesuai urutan Mendesain ulang urgensi3) mengintegrasikan pemrosesan informasi ke dalam karya nyata yang menghasilkan informasi4) sumber daya yang tersebar secara geografis seolah-olah dipusatkan 5) menghubungkan aktivitas paralel dalam alur kerja, bukan hanya mengintegrasikan hasil mereka6) memasukkan titik keputusan tempat pekerjaan dilakukan, dan Membangun kontrol ke dalam proses dan7) menangkap informasi sekali dan di sumbernya. Lihat Kerangka Kerja CAD dengan Bantuan Computer-Aided Inisialisasi Inisiatif CAD Framework 8211 sebuah standar untuk memfasilitasi integrasi alat otomasi desain elektronik (EDA) Ini memungkinkan sebuah organisasi memilih 8220best alat kelas8221 tanpa mengkhawatirkan masalah integrasi. Standar CFI mencakup Antarmuka Pemrograman Representasi Desain, Antarmuka Pemrograman Intertool Communication, Spesifikasi Enkapsulasi Peralatan, Layanan Lingkungan Komputasi. Lihat Computer-Aided Engineering lihat Cross-Functional Team Change Management adalah pendekatan sistematis untuk menghadapi perubahan, baik dari sudut pandang organisasi maupun pada tingkat individu. Manajemen perubahan memiliki setidaknya tiga aspek yang berbeda termasuk: beradaptasi terhadap perubahan, pengendalian perubahan, dan perubahan yang mempengaruhi. Pendekatan proaktif untuk menangani perubahan adalah inti dari ketiga aspek tersebut. Bagi sebuah organisasi, manajemen perubahan berarti menentukan dan menerapkan prosedur dan atau teknologi untuk menghadapi perubahan dalam lingkungan bisnis dan mendapatkan keuntungan dari perubahan peluang. Piagam adalah komitmen tertulis yang disetujui oleh manajemen yang menyatakan lingkup kewenangan untuk proyek pembangunan atau tim produk terpadu. Proses menempatkan atau mengembalikan informasi produk baru atau yang dimodifikasi yang terkendali dalam sistem PDMPIM. Jika sebuah revisi sedang dibuat, prosedur ini biasanya memulai proses reviewapproval di bawah kendali sistem PDMPIM. Proses mengakses informasi definisi produk yang terkelola dalam prosedur yang terkendali. Akses mungkin untuk melihat, merujuk, untuk digunakan dalam aplikasi atau tugas lain, atau untuk membuat perubahan pada informasi. Sistem PDMPIM mencegah banyak aktivitas perubahan simultan untuk memastikan integritas informasi produk. Chip-on-Board adalah teknologi kemasan komponen di mana sirkuit terpadu telanjang terpasang langsung ke substrat dan saling terhubung melalui kabel mikroskopis. 1. Continuous Improvement 2. lihat Item Konfigurasi Klasifikasi adalah penugasan atribut dan meta-data penentu lainnya ke objek dan informasi yang dikelola dalam sistem PDM. Data meta ini kemudian digunakan untuk mencari data dengan karakteristik serupa. Uji Klinis adalah menguji sistem dalam setting klinis yaitu di rumah sakit, klinik, kantor dokter, dan lain-lain. Pengujian pengguna dan pengujian fitur di lingkungan semacam itu memiliki keterbatasan khusus, terutama karena potensi efek tak terduga pada perawatan pasien. Pengujian pengguna dalam setting klinis seringkali memerlukan tinjauan oleh komite etika untuk memastikan bahwa privasi pasien tidak terganggu dan tidak ada salahnya pasien terhadap pasien sebagai hasil pengujian. Seperti halnya pengujian obat bius, mungkin tidak tepat untuk menghapus fitur dari sistem demi pengujian jika tampaknya fitur tersebut secara langsung memberi manfaat bagi perawatan pasien. Cloud of Points Satu set koordinat x-y-z yang diperoleh dari pemindai 3D atau digitizer. Data dapat diartikan sebagai permukaan yang kontinu dan digunakan dalam model 3D. Ini sering digunakan untuk reverse engineering. Kontrol Numerik Komputer Tidak Bisa Gandakan (Kegagalan). Juga dikenal sebagai 8220No Trouble Found8221 (NTF). Ini adalah hasil pengujian suatu bagian atau modul yang diperoleh dari pengerjaan ulang atau servis suatu produk. Pemodelan Kognitif menghasilkan model komputasi untuk bagaimana orang melakukan tugas dan memecahkan masalah, berdasarkan prinsip psikologis. Model ini mungkin merupakan garis besar tugas yang ditulis di atas kertas atau program komputer yang memungkinkan kita memprediksi waktu yang dibutuhkan orang untuk melakukan tugas, jenis kesalahan yang mereka buat, keputusan yang mereka buat, atau tombol dan item menu yang mereka pilih. Model seperti itu dapat digunakan untuk menentukan cara meningkatkan antarmuka pengguna sehingga tugas seseorang lebih sedikit kesalahan atau memerlukan sedikit waktu dan membangun antarmuka pengguna untuk membuat perangkat lunak yang bereaksi lebih efektif untuk membantu orang menggunakan sistem dengan mengantisipasi perilaku mereka. Petunjuk kognitif melibatkan pengembangan skenario tugas dari spesifikasi produk. Para ahli kemudian memainkan peran seorang pengguna yang bekerja melalui serangkaian tugas. Setiap langkah proses user8217 dievaluasi untuk kepatuhan terhadap prinsip kegunaan yang mapan. 1. Bekerja sama, bekerja sama 2. Suatu proses memaksimalkan perilaku kooperatif dan asertif untuk memuaskan kedua belah pihak dalam konflik satu sama lain. Perdagangan Produk Kolaboratif Grup Aberdeen mendefinisikan Trade Product Commerce (CPC) sebagai kelas perangkat lunak dan layanan 8230a yang menggunakan teknologi Internet untuk mengizinkan individu 8211 tidak peduli peran apa yang mereka miliki dalam komersialisasi suatu produk, tidak peduli alat berbasis komputer apa yang mereka gunakan , Tidak peduli di mana mereka berada secara geografis atau di dalam pasokan bersih 8211 untuk mengembangkan, membangun, dan mengelola produk secara keseluruhan sepanjang siklus hidup. Dengan menggunakan browser standar, pengguna BPK resmi dapat meninjau informasi dari tampilan sistem informasi perusahaan yang diperluas yang beroperasi di seluruh sumber pengembangan produk heterogen yang tersebar. Sumber daya ini biasanya berada dalam beberapa repositori informasi dan berasal dari sistem yang diimplementasikan dan dipelihara secara independen. Praktik menempatkan secara fisik anggota tim produk terpadu multi fungsi lebih dekat satu sama lain untuk meningkatkan komunikasi, koordinasi dan pengambilan keputusan dalam sebuah proyek pembangunan. Kolokasi virtual mengacu pada penggunaan teknologi untuk mencapai beberapa manfaat komunikasi bagi anggota tim yang tersebar secara geografis. Common Cause adalah variasi yang melekat dalam proses dan tidak dapat segera diidentifikasi dan dikendalikan. Metode dan aktivitas untuk mentransformasi informasi pesaing publik yang terpilah menjadi pengetahuan yang relevan dan strategis mengenai posisi, ukuran, usaha dan tren pesaing. Istilah ini mengacu pada praktik umum pengumpulan, analisis, dan komunikasi informasi terbaik mengenai tren kompetitif yang terjadi di luar perusahaan sendiri. Penerapan teknik know-how terhadap proses pemilihan komponen, aplikasi, kompatibilitas proses dan pengadaan, termasuk analisis tren baru pada perangkat elektronik. Komponen Supplier Management Component Supplier Management (CSM) adalah kelas aplikasi perangkat lunak yang menjaga informasi tentang komponen standar, baik yang dibeli maupun yang dibuat, untuk mendukung berbagai disiplin fungsional seperti desain, pengadaan, bahan, manajemen konfigurasi, dan manufaktur. Sistem ini berfungsi sebagai repositori pusat untuk informasi komponen dan pemasok untuk memaksimalkan standardisasi, perancangan pengambilan dan penggunaan ulang, dan efisiensi pengadaan. Sistem CSM mengandung empat elemen utama, klasifikasi dan pengambilan bagian, perpustakaan komponen, katalogisasi komponen Web, dan manajemen proses pemasok. Dinamika Fluida Komputasi Dinamika Komputasi Dinamika adalah analisis numerik aliran fluida dan gas, perpindahan panas, dan fenomena terkait. Pemecah CFD mengandung serangkaian algoritme kompleks yang digunakan untuk pemodelan dan simulasi aliran cairan, gas, panas, dan arus listrik. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) adalah penggunaan komputer untuk membantu pembuatan dan modifikasi desain, yang paling umum, disain dengan konten teknik berat. Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) adalah penggunaan komputer dalam desain, analisis, dan pembuatan produk, proses, atau proyek. Kadang-kadang lebih sedikit merujuk pada penggunaan komputer hanya dalam tahap analisis. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) adalah penggunaan deskripsi komputer dari bagian atau perakitan untuk mendorong perencanaan, pemotongan, pembentukan, perakitan dan inspeksi barang melalui aplikasi komputerisasi. Computer-Aided Process Planning menggunakan sebagian data dan aturan proses untuk menghasilkan rencana proses atau instruksi kerja. Variant CAPP didasarkan pada klasifikasi teknologi kelompok suku cadang dan fitur bagian untuk mencari rencana proses serupa yang telah ditentukan yang paling sesuai dengan klasifikasi. CAPP generatif menggunakan klasifikasi bagian dan fitur beserta peraturan dan pengetahuan tentang proses manufaktur yang terkait dengan fitur untuk menghasilkan rencana proses yang sesuai. Computer-Aided Software Engineering Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) adalah aplikasi teknologi komputer untuk memudahkan pengembangan perangkat lunak. Alat KASUS biasanya menyertakan perpustakaan kode yang dapat digunakan kembali (modul perangkat lunak yang mudah dimodifikasi untuk tugas tertentu), alat produktivitas pemrogram, generator aplikasi, dan utilitas pengujian. Alat KASUS juga menyediakan manajemen kebutuhan, perancangan dan analisis sistem terstruktur, simulasi sistem, manajemen uji, pembuatan dokumentasi, dll. Item Konfigurasi Perangkat Lunak Komputer Item Konfigurasi Perangkat Lunak Komputer (CSCI) adalah komponen perangkat lunak dari sebuah sistem, yang ditujukan untuk manajemen konfigurasi ke Pastikan integritas konfigurasi Ini mungkin ada pada tingkat manapun dalam hirarki tempat pertukaran diperlukan. Setiap CSCI memiliki tinjauan desain individual yang sesuai, sertifikasi kualifikasi individual, tinjauan penerimaan individu, dan manual pengguna terpisah. Ide untuk produk atau sistem baru yang diwakili dalam bentuk deskripsi tertulis, sketsa, diagram blok atau model sederhana. Konsep adalah representasi awal dari produk baru atau pendekatan alternatif untuk merancang produk baru. Model fisik atau representasi yang ditujukan terutama untuk tinjauan desain, konseptualisasi produk dan umpan balik pelanggan. Model ini biasanya tidak cukup akurat atau tahan lama untuk pengujian fungsional dan fisik penuh. Proses dimana pernyataan konsep, sketsa atau model disajikan kepada pelanggan untuk reaksi mereka. Reaksi ini dapat digunakan untuk memungkinkan pengembang memperkirakan nilai penjualan konsep atau membuat perubahan pada konsep untuk meningkatkan nilai penjualan potensial. Arsitektur Konseptual merupakan dekomposisi sistem yang tepat tanpa memperhatikan rincian spesifikasi antarmuka. Arsitektur konseptual mengidentifikasi komponen sistem atau subsistem, tanggung jawab masing-masing komponen atau subsistem, dan keterkaitan antara komponen atau subsistem. Tingkat fase, tahapan, atau aktivitas mana yang mungkin tumpang tindih atau dilakukan secara paralel. Pendekatan sistematis terhadap perancangan produk terpadu dan bersamaan, dan proses terkaitnya, termasuk pembuatan dan dukungan. Pendekatan ini dimaksudkan agar para pengembang sejak awal dapat mempertimbangkan semua elemen siklus hidup produk dari konsepsi melalui pembuangan, termasuk persyaratan kualitas, biaya, jadwal dan pengguna. Kumpulan karakteristik deskriptif dan pengatur item8217, yang dapat dinyatakan dalam a) istilah fungsional, yaitu kinerja apa yang diharapkan oleh item, dan b) istilah fisik, misalnya seperti apa item itu dan terdiri dari kapan selesai . Configuration Item (CI) adalah perangkat keras, perangkat lunak, atau item komposit yang memiliki fungsi yang didefinisikan, dapat berada pada tingkat manapun dalam hirarki sistem, dan ditujukan untuk pengelolaan konfigurasi. Configuration Management (CM) adalah proses pengelolaan persyaratan dan dokumentasi desain produk karena berkembang dan berubah selama siklus hidupnya (dari definisi persyaratan melalui produksi, operasi, dukungan dan pembuangan) dan memastikan bahwa produk dan proses yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan dokumentasi ini. Fungsi Manajemen Konfigurasi 21217s termasuk menjaga status konfigurasi dokumen, proses produk dan proses pada konfigurasi ini yang mengendalikan perubahan pada konfigurasi ini (lihat Kontrol Perubahan Teknik), dan memverifikasi bahwa konfigurasi produk atau proses yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan yang dimaksud dalam dokumentasi yang mendasarinya. . Pengujian produk kandidat untuk mengetahui karakteristik spesifik yang dibutuhkan oleh standar untuk menentukan sejauh mana produk tersebut merupakan implementasi yang sesuai. Metodologi untuk mengeksplorasi dan menggambarkan pandangan pelanggan subjektif terhadap fitur produk. Analisis konjungsi menghindari pertanyaan langsung, mis. Apa pendapat Anda tentang harga produk kami8221 Sebaliknya, pelanggan ditanya apa yang bersedia mereka bayar untuk fitur produk tertentu. Dengan demikian, situasi pembelian sebenarnya dengan pertimbangan alternatif biaya-manfaat yang berbeda disimulasikan. Analisis yang dihasilkan menunjukkan secara langsung kontribusi masing-masing fitur produk terhadap total utilitas produk. Analisis konjoin dapat digunakan untuk menentukan sampai sejauh mana perubahan utilitas yang dirasakan oleh produk8217s jika beberapa fitur produk tertentu dimodifikasi. Konsensus adalah keputusan kelompok yang dihasilkan dari anggota yang terlibat dalam diskusi penuh dan terbuka dan kemudian mencapai kesepakatan untuk hidup dengan dan secara terbuka mendukung keputusan yang dihasilkan. 1. Sehubungan dengan CAD, ini adalah nilai dalam model geometris yang menentukan hubungan antara entitas seperti bidang, permukaan, titik, garis, busur, pusat, tepi, dan lain-lain. Kendala digunakan untuk mendefinisikan model dan menggerakkan parametrik atau Sistem geometri variasional Algoritma yang digunakan untuk bekerja dengan kendala dikenal sebagai constraint management. 2. Pembatasan atau batasan yang mempengaruhi keseluruhan kemampuan, prioritas, dan sumber daya. Analisis Kontekstual Pertanyaan Kontekstual Analisis Kontekstual Pertanyaan Kontekstual adalah metode evaluasi lapangan terstruktur yang menggunakan kombinasi metodologi yang berasal dari antropologi dan jurnalisme. Dengan mengamati dan mewawancarai pengguna produk di lingkungan aktual mereka dan memahami konteks di mana produk digunakan, wawasan yang lebih baik diperoleh ke dalam isu-isu yang mempengaruhi analisis kontekstual penyelidikan kontekstual adalah proses penemuan yang dapat menambah wawasan tentang kebutuhan pelanggan. Kontinjensi adalah peruntukan waktu, biaya, anggaran atau margin perencanaan yang terukur untuk elemen atau risiko yang tak terduga dengan proyek pembangunan. Desain Kontinjensi adalah suatu bentuk pemeriksaan kesalahan yang berfokus pada pengalaman pengguna dengan produk. Maksudnya adalah merancang fitur yang membantu pengguna menghindari kesalahan atau membiarkan pengguna dengan cepat mengoreksi masukan data atau pengoperasian produk. Hal ini dilakukan melalui tata letak dan desain grafis, operasi intuitif, instruksi yang jelas, tanda dan peringatan yang tepat, pesan kesalahan deskriptif, penghindaran jargon teknis, dan langkah-langkah pengoperasian sederhana. Tampilan grafis hasil proses dari waktu ke waktu. Mereka digunakan untuk menentukan apakah sebuah proses dalam pengendalian statistik atau yang memerlukan penyesuaian. Dalam Statistical Process Control (SPC), dua garis horisontal digambar pada diagram kontrol yang menunjukkan batas kontrol atas (UCL) dan batas kontrol bawah (lower control limit / LCL). Sampel-sarana dan rentang dari lot produksi harus berada dalam batas-batas ini. Jika memang begitu, prosesnya normal dan dikatakan terkendali. Jika ada titik di luar salah satu batasan, ini menunjukkan hilangnya kendali 8211 prosesnya harus dihentikan dan alasannya ditemukan. Rencana Pengendalian adalah deskripsi tertulis dari sistem untuk mengendalikan bagian, rakitan, produk, dan proses. Mereka ditulis untuk memenuhi karakteristik dan persyaratan teknik produk yang penting. Setiap bagian atau rakitan harus memiliki Control Plan, namun dalam banyak kasus, 8220family8221 Control Plans dapat mencakup sejumlah komponen yang diproduksi dengan menggunakan proses yang umum. Lihat Measurement Machine Coordinate Measuring Machine Coordinator Measurement Machine (CMM) adalah perangkat yang mengukur ukuran 3-D produk, peralatan dan komponen dengan akurasi mendekati 0,0001 in. Digunakan untuk inspeksi dan reverse engineering. Lihat Biaya Kompetensi Inti Inti adalah kemampuan penting yang menciptakan keunggulan kompetitif yang kokoh. Tindakan Korektif adalah tindakan yang dilakukan untuk menghilangkan penyebab ketidaksesuaian yang ada atau situasi yang tidak diinginkan lainnya untuk mencegah kekambuhan. Cost as an Independent Variable Cost as an Independent Variable (DoD initiative) 8211 an acquisition strategy of obtaining the best available productsystem within the constraints of available resources. Cost performance and schedule trades are made to achieve this balance with budget. Cost Benefit Ratio The ratio of the present value of benefits to the present value of costs. 1. Those elements of cost which significantly impact the productsystems cost. 2. Any factor that causes a change in the cost on an activity. An activity may have multiple cost drivers associated with it. Cost Estimating Relationship Cost Estimating Relationship is an equation that defines the relationship of an independent variable or product parameter (e.g. product weight, speed, etc.) to its related cost or price. Cost estimating relationships are the basis of parametric cost estimating techniques. A Cost Model is an estimating tool consisting of one or more cost estimating relationships, estimating methodologies, or estimating techniques used to predict the cost of a system or one of its lower level elements. Cost of Quality All costs expended for appraisal costs, prevention costs, and both internal and external failure costs of activities and cost objects. A formal activity employed to rectify a cost target breach or to reduce the cost of an existing product or design. A cost reduction effort has a specific quantified objective and may affect schedule, performance or support to achieve this objective. A Cost Table is a multidimensional data base in which cost is captured for several levels of a number of attributes for either the parts or functions of a product. Cost tables are used to develop early estimates of the cost of a design based on product or part parameters or functions and different materials and manufacturing processes and methods. Cost tables have been primarily used by Japanese companies. Cp is a capability index that tells how well a system can meet two-sided specification limits, assuming that the average is centered on the target value. Cp is the ratio of the specification range to the process capability at plus or minus 3 sigma. see Collaborative Product Commerce Concurrent Product Development (Synonymous with concurrent engineering or integrated product development. See Integrated Product Development) Continuous Process Improvement Cpk is a capability index for a non-centered mean that tells how well a system can meet two-sided specification limits. Cpk is the ratio of the specification range to the process capability at plus or minus 3 sigma. Critical Path Method 8211 A method for determining the minimum project duration by identifying the critical path based on task interrelationships and duration. It assumes there is no wasted time for the activities that are on the critical path. Taking action to decrease the total project duration by analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost. Often, it involves reducing the time it takes to complete an activity by adding resources. Creeping Elegance Featurism The tendency for designers to add more capability, functions and features to a product as it is being developed than were originally intended. These actions cause a product8217s cost to increase beyond the target, the schedule to slip and can detract from usability. Critical Chain Method is a project scheduling and management methodology developed by Eliyahu Goldratt based on concepts from the Theory of Constraints. With Critical Chain scheduling, uncertainty is primarily managed by (a) using average task duration estimates (b) scheduling backwards from the date a project is needed (to ensure work that needs to be done is done, and it is done only when needed) (c) placing aggregate buffers in the project plan to protect the entire project and the key tasks and (d) using buffer management to control the plan. The characteristics or specifications for a material, part, assembly or product that define those attributes that are essential to the proper fit or functioning of the item to satisfy the intended customer use or need. In a project network diagram, the critical path is the one with the longest duration. The critical path may change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. (see CPM) A subset of drawingmodel parameters that are critical to function and have tolerances andor datums different from the standard tolerances or datum. As a result, these parameters will usually have tolerances and datums specifically defined on a drawing or in a model. In the absence of dimensional drawings, CTF dimensions are a means of communicating dimensions critical to success of the design, tolerance and other non-geometrical information. This approach is generally simpler than a complete fabrication drawing because of fewer dimensions. Critical to Quality Critical to Quality (CTQ) characteristics are the key measurable characteristics of a product, it8217s parts, or process whose performance standards or specification limits must be met in order to satisfy the customer. These characteristics should be validated with product testing and controlled in the manufacturing process. They align improvement or design efforts with customer requirements. Also see critical characteristics. Cross-Functional Team is a team consisting of representatives from marketing, engineering, manufacturing, finance. purchasing, test, quality, finance and any other required disciplines with responsibility for developing a product or product subsystem. This team is empowered to represent the functional disciplines and develop a product by addressing its life cycle requirements including its product and support. see Computer Software Configuration Item CostSchedule Control System is a performance measurement system that uses earned value techniques to breakdown a budget to cost variation into cost and schedule variation components Constructive Solids Geometry 8211 a solid modeling method using primitives to build more complex models and Boolean operations of add, difference, and intersection. Design for Maintainability is a set of principles and a methodology for analyzing product concepts or designs for characteristics and design features which reduce maintenance requirements and frequency, facilitate diagnosis, and minimize the time and effort to disassemble, repairreplace, and reassemble the product as part of the maintenance process. Design for Test is a set of principles for the design of the product to incorporate built-in test features provide test visibility to to modules, boards and parts undergoing test faciliate testing minimize test cycle time facilitate diagnosis of faults provide test access and minimize test connection effort.tdgt Design for Excellence 8211 designing to consider all relevant life cycle factors such as manufacturability, reliability, maintainability, testability, affordability, etc. The ability to uniquely identify any faults (or potential faults) in the behavior or operation of the product. Diagnosability would indicate not only what the fault was, but also what failed or caused the failure (e.g. module, component, line of code, etc.). Solids modeling capabilities that enable complete products to be built in electronic form. The mockups can be used to check for problems such as interference and clashes between components. Using digital mockups reduces the cost and time of development since physical models do not need to be built. Synonymous with digital pre-assembly, electronic mock-up, and assembly modeling. Cost that can be specifically identified or traced to an activity, cost object or final cost objective. Direct Digital Manufacturing The process of going directly from an electronic digital representation of a part or item to the final part or item via additive fabrication. See Additive Fabrication. Directed Evolution is an advanced TRIZ methodology used to create scenarios to support the planning and development of future generations of technical systems. Draft International Standards (International Standards Organization) Discontinuous innovation falls outside of existing markets or market segments, and when successful extends and redefines the market, exposing new possibilities. Discontinuous innovation is characterized by lateral or divergent thinking, by looking outside of defined boundaries, and by discovery of new knowledge related to both market need and technological capability. Discounted Cash Flow Discounted Cash Flow 8211 an analysis technique that determines the present value of a series of positive and negative cash flows using a specified discount factor representing the cost of capital. This can be used to compare investment alternatives such a new product development alternatives. Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control 8211 a Six Sigma improvement methodology DMADV is a data driven quality strategy for designing products and processes that is an integral part of a Six Sigma quality initiative. It consists of five interconnected phases: define, measure, analyze, design and verify. Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification (ANSI standard) Electronic Design Automation Electronic Design Automation (EDA) consists of hardware and software tools to aid in the design and development of electronic products through design capture, simulation, synthesis, verification, analysis, and testing. Electronic Design Interchange Format An EIAANSI standard which defines the file format for communicating two-dimensional graphics and interconnection information that is used to describe the patterns for fabricating and manufacturing semiconductors and PCBPWB8217s. Electronic Manufacturing Services Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) refers to the industry that provides contract design, manufacturing, and related product support services on behalf of electronics OEMs, in which the design and brand name belongs to the OEM making electronic products or subassemblies to be sold under the OEM brand name. Often referred to as 8220Contract Manufacturing8221 or 8220Contract Electronics Manufacturing8221. Electronic Systems Design Automation Electronic Systems Design Automation (ESDA) is a set of graphical front-end tools that allow designers to use pictures rather than words to describe and analyze their creations. These tools can use HDL8217s as an interchange format rather than a design medium and allow for higher degrees of abstraction over traditional schematic capture or waveform display programs. Electronic Systems Level Electronic Systems Level is a higher level abstraction for the design of electronic products than RTL (see Register Transfer Level) which will improve design productivity with the design of ever larger and more complex electronic systems. This is the third generation in design methodologies and tools (gate-level, register transfer level, and electronic systems level). Key elements of ESL include behavioral synthesis, integration between the behavioral level and the architecture level, and hardwaresoftware codesign and coverification. 1. Early Manufacturing Involvement 2. Electro-Magnetic Interference Empathic Design is based on observation watching customersconsumers use products or services. But unlike focus groups, usability laboratories, and other contexts of traditional market research, this observation is conducted in the customer8217s own environment in the course of normal, everyday routines. This approach enables the researcher to observe and develop information on customer needs that will drive design that is not accessible through other observation-oriented research methods. see Electronic Manufacturing Services The process by which a device under development and its native software is prototyped before its manufacture. End-of-Life (EOL) is the term applied to products or components that are being retired from the market because of technology obsolescence or rapidly declining demand. A modification to a component, product configuration, or document from currently defined and approved status. Changes cause version or revision levels of affected items to be updated. Engineering Change Control is the process and procedures that manage how changes are proposed, reviewed, and approved and incorporated into a product and its associated data items. Change control is a part of an overall configuration management methodology and uses review and release processes to enforce compliance with company change policies. Engineering Change Notice Engineering Change Order Engineering Change Notice (ECN) Engineering Change Order (ECO) are formal documents notifying selected persons of proposed, pending, or accomplished changes. In a PDMPIM-managed environment, ECNs may be distributed by electronic mail. Enhanced Quality Function Deployment is a broader QFD framework that applies a system perspective recognizing the need to decompose more complex products into subsystems and assemblies with supporting deployment matrices and concept selection matrices. Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated computer applications to plan and support execution of business functions in the manufacturing enterprise. ERP relates to product development in the following ways. ERP applications will contain product structure data (bills of material) generated during development. Some ERP applications also provide some product data management functionality. Finally, ERP is the tool to help forecast new product demand and order and stock materials to support product launch. Environmental Stress Screening Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) is a process which applies specific kinds of environmental stresses to products on an accelerated basis, but within their design parameters and limits to cause latent and intermittent flaws to become detectable failures. Also see Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS). Electronic Product Definition Estimate to Complete A qualitative method of researching customer needs based on studying the anthropology or culture of the user. This method involves spending time in the field observing customers and their environment to better understand their lifestyle or culture as a basis for understanding their needs for a new product. A deep understanding of your customer can lead to fundamental insights that impact product design, feature sets, product positioning, marketing communications, advertising execution, etc. Electronic Work Instruction The view that our effort will be greatest when we expect that we can perform the task at hand and that we expect to obtain rewards for our performance. Experience Curve (also known as a learning curve) is a mathematical model that relates the cost per unit (or labor time per unit) to the cumulative number of units produced in an exponentially decreasing manner. The information modeling language used to define the STEP standard (ISO 10303). An internet-based network that provides controlled access to outside parties. Also see Intranet. Extreme Programming (XP) is one of the more popular lightweight, or agile development methods. In general, XP structures the 8220four basic activities of software development 8230 coding, testing, listening, and designing.8221 XP structures coding based on the concepts of pair-programming and test-development. XP structures the testing activity by requiring automated tests that the team runs every day, several times a day. XP structures the listening activity through pair-programming and by requiring that the customer be part of the team and be on-site. Lastly, XP structures the designing activity by encouraging developers to use test-first development: define a test, then code until the test passes, then proceed to the next test. There is no big-design-up-front stage in an XP project. A deficiency, defect, nonperformance or nonconformance with specified requirements. An item of equipment has suffered a failure when it is no longer capable of fulfilling one or more of its intended functions. Note that an item does not need to be completely unable to function to have suffered a failure. Failure Analysis is a collection of techniques to determine the root cause of a component or process defect or failure. Failure in Time Failure in Time 8211 a reliability measure usually expressed in failures per 10 to the 9th power hours. A particular way in which failures occur, independent of the reason for failure. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in which each potential failure mode in every sub-item of an item is analyzed to determine its effect on other sub-items and on the required function of the item. It is used to identify potential failure modes and their associated causesmechanisms, consider risks of these failure modes, and identify mitigating actions to reduce the probability or impact of the failure. Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis is a procedure that is performed after a failure mode and effects analysis to classify each potential failure effect according to its severity and probability of occurrence. Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) is a closed-loop system to capture reports of failure from customers or service technicians in the field or from the factory, analyze these reports, detect trends or problems, and use this analysis to take corrective action in the design, component selection, supplier selection, manufacturing process, or operating manual of the product. Features of a FRACAS system include a database manager, tracking system for document controls, user definable reports which allow selection of data elements and sort options, and search functions. Factory Acceptance Testing Fault Tree Analysis Fault Tree Analysis is a top-down, hierarchical analysis of faults to identify the various fault mechanisms and their cause. It graphically describes the cause and effect relationships that result in major failures. The fault or major failure being analyzed is identified as the 8220top event.8221 All of the possible causes of the top event are identified in a tree using 8220or8221 nodes for independent causes and 8220and8221 nodes for multiple causes that must exist concurrently for a failure to occur. see Functional Configuration Audit A design for testability methodology that provides complete access to an integrated circuit. EDA tools can insert scan registers automatically during logic synthesis. An abstracted description of work that a product must perform to meet customer needs (for value analysis, sometimes stated in a noun-verb format, e.g. 8220transmit data8221) Functional Requirements capture the intended behavior of the system or product 8211 what the system will do. This behavior may be expressed as functions, tasks, or services the system or product is required to perform. Therefore, functional requirements do not include performance characteristics, operating conditions, use cases, and specifications. Functional Test is a test that identifies functional level faults in printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs), including manufacturing related faults not identified by in-circuit tests (ICT), timing related failures, and faults internal to components. Functional test equipment operates at the same frequency the PCBA is designed for and may have the capability to margin temperature, voltage and frequency. Functional Worth is equal to the least expensive way to perform a given function. Synonymous with value analysis and value engineering. A methodology of focusing on those functions that are valuable to customers and delivering them at the lowest possible cost. Function Analysis System Technique is a value analysis or function analysis technique to describe a system or product as a series of logically related functions and associate those functions to costs. This technique identifies less important functions that may then be eliminated, thereby reducing costs. Functional Configuration Audit An engineering audit of a configuration item (CI) or system to verify that the performance test results of the item are in accordance with the performance specification of the item. See Design Validation and Validation. Function Cost Analysis Function Cost Analysis is an accounting allocation of cost and importance to product function. It is a tool used to support value engineering or value analysis to identify high cost functions to address. Function Point Analysis A top down software development estimating technique which was developed by A.J. Albrecht. It entails breaking a project down into 8216Function Points8217 which are classified by degrees of complexity. Factors are then applied from which time estimates may be developed. Fuzzy Front End The is the process for determining customer needs or market opportunities, generating ideas for new products, conducting necessary research on the needs, developing product concepts, and evaluating product concepts up to the point that a decision is made to proceed with development. This process is described as the fuzzy front end because it is the product concept is least defined or most fuzzy at this point. see General Availability Gantt Chart is a diagram used in project management, where the x axis is time and the y axis shows tasks to be performed to complete the project. Each task is displayed as a horizontal bar spanning the time period during which it is expected to take place. Arrows may be drawn from one task to another to indicate dependencies (when one task can8217t be begun until another is completed). The Gantt chart was developed by Charles Gantt in 1917. 1. A gate (or stage-gate) is a step where the merits and progress of the project are evaluated before further progress is allowed. A gate involves a review that often results in a 8220gono go8221 decision for the project. 2. Another name for a logic cell (see Cell), which is a functional group of transistors having physical attributes that support a specific semiconductor process technology. A metric for the size of an ASIC design, usually expressed in terms of the equivalent number of basic 2-input NAND gates used. A gate count can be roughly converted to a transistor count by multiplying by a factor of four. Gatekeepers are the members of management that conduct the stage-gate or phase-gate reviews that are part of a stage-gate process in new product development. The gatekeepers are usually members of a formal group known as Product Committee or similar name that are charged with portfolio management and pipeline management. Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GRampR) is the evaluation of a gauging instrument8217s accuracy by determining whether the measurements taken with it are repeatable and reproducible. Repeatability is the variation in measurement obtained with one measurement instrument when used several times by an appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic on the same part. Reproducibility is the variation in the averages of the measurements made by the different appraisers using the same measuring instrument when measuring the identical characteristic on the same part. see Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing A product data exchange format standard for electronics manufacturing that characterizes, sorts and organizes data into intelligent schemes. This standard is represented in IPC-2511, Generic Requirements for Implementation of Product Manufacturing Description Data and Transfer Methodology. The point in the product life cycle when production has been ramped-up to sufficient volumes and when product issues have been resolved so that the product is made available to all interested customers. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GDampT) 8211 ANSI-Y14.5 standard for showing the dimensioning and tolerancing on a drawing considering the functions or relationships of part features. GDampT depicts the geometric relationship of part features (instead of the Cartesian relationship), allowing the maximum tolerance which permits full function of the product. GovernmentIndustry Data Exchange Program (for electronic components) A failure which, on its own, does not become evident to the operator or user under normal circumstances. Hierarchical Design is a design methodology where portions of large designs are divided into manageable sections or sub-blocks that may be created, represented symbolically, designed, and then connected together when completed. This methodology allows different parts of the design to be worked on in parallel. Highly Accelerated Life Test Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) is a process developed to uncover design defects and weaknesses in electronic and mechanical assemblies using a vibration system combined with rapid high and low temperature changes. The purpose of HALT is to optimize product reliability by identifying the functional and destructive limits of a product. HALT addresses reliability issues at an early stage in product development. Highly Accelerated Stress Screening Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS) is a technique for production screening that rapidly exposes process or production flaws in products. Its purpose is to expose a product to optimized production screens without affecting product reliability. Unlike HALT, HASS uses nondestructive stresses of extreme temperatures and temperature change rates with vibration. Harmonization of Product Data Standards 8211 An organization sponsored by ANSI to oversee and coordinate the harmonization of electricalelectronic data standards. Hyper-Text Mark-up Language 8211 the mark-up language used as the basis for the world-wide web. Human Factors refers to the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds. It furthers serious consideration of knowledge about the assignment of appropriate functions for humans and machines, whether people serve as operators, maintainers, or users in the system. And, it advocates systematic use of such knowledge to achieve compatibility in the design of interactive systems of people, machines, and environments to ensure their effectiveness, safety, and ease of performance. The minimum return on investment or internal rate of return percentage a new product must meet or exceed for it to be approved for investment with development. International Standards Organization is a specialized international agency for standardization composed of the national standards bodies of 91 countries. ISO 9000 is a set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance developed to help companies effectively document the quality system elements to be implemented to maintain an efficient quality system. The standards, initially published in 1987, are not specific to any particular industry, product or service.tdgt An ISO technical standard for product data representation and exchange commonly referred to as STEP or the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data . An ISO technical standard titled 8220Quality management system 8211 particular standards for the application of ISO 9001:2000 for automotive production and relevant service part organizations8221. This standard replaces QS-9000 and harmonizes requirements for automotive manufacturers internationally. InterTool Communications 8211 part of the CFI standards that enable applications to communicate events and data to each other at run time. ITC is the basis for achieving operations such as cross highlighting logic in both the front end schematic capture and board layout tools. see Joint Application Development A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that can be run as a virtual machine on many computer platforms. Many applications such as product data management (PDM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are being re-architected to run certain processes using Java to make them widely available regardless of a user8217s platform. see Joint Development Model Joint Electron Device Engineering Council A Jig is a device that holds the workpiece securely in the correct positions and has the capability of guiding the tool during a manufacturing operation. Just-in-Time Production (See Lean Manufacturing) Joint Application Development Joint Application Development (JAD) was developed at IBM Canada in the 708217s. Joint Application DevelopmentDesign is a group session approach that stresses the communication between a multi-disciplinary group brought together for the express purpose of generating system requirements and preliminary design. Joint Development Model A model of partnership with an external manufacturer to jointly design a product that will be produced by that manufacturer. The responsibilities for development and the ownership of the intellectual property are negotiable. Joint Test Action Group 8211 the informal name for IEEEANSI Standard 1149.1-1990 which is a set of design rules for testing at the IC level. Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers A Japanese term describing a process or philosophy of continuous, incremental improvement. Th Kano Model, developed by Dr. Noriaki Kano, further refined the notion of quality quality along two dimensions in contrast to the linear 8220good-bad8221 8220ok-not ok8221 dimension in existence all along. The two dimensions were: 1) The degree to which a product or service performs, and 2) The degree to which the user is satisfied. The correlation of quality on two axes further led to three unique definitions of quality, namely: Basic Quality, Performance Quality and Excitement Quality. see Knowledge-Based Engineering Known Good Die (integrated circuits) Kinematic Analysis is the analysis of motion without regard to forces that cause it. (Also see Dynamic Analysis.) Kinematic simulations show the physical positions of all the parts in an assembly with respect to the time as it goes through a cycle. 1000 Lines of Code Knowledge-Based Engineering is a set of design automation tools that capture design knowledge and rules to automate the design process. The overall management process to capture, organize, manage and disseminate knowledge in an organization to improve enterprise effectiveness by avoiding mistakes and avoiding the time to relearn needed knowledge. Since product development is very knowledge intensive, knowledge management offers tremendous leverage and opportunity for improvement. Key Process Input Variable (Six Sigma term) Key Process Output Variable (Six Sigma term) 1000 Source Lines of Code 1. A Laboratory is a test facility that may include chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical, reliability testing or test validation. 2. A Laboratory is a research facility that supports development and testing under controlled conditions. Local Area Network 1. For ICs, the process of floorplanning, implementing, and verifying the location of transistors and their connections within a chip design. 2. For PCBs, the process of entering, placing, routing, and verifying the location of physical components and their connections within a board design. see Life Cycle Analysis 1. see Life Cycle Cost 2. Leaded Chip Carrier 8211 a square chip carrier with pins on all four sides. Lower Control Limit is the lower limit used within statistical process control that define the constraints of common cause variations. When a parameter value falls below the lower control limit, it flags the occurrence of special causes contributing to variation. Lead Customers Users Lead customers or users are those customers or users who are the most advanced users of the product, customers who are pushing the product to its limits, or customers who are adapting an existing product(s) to new uses. Lead users are a good source of information on needs for a new type of product. Lead user research is the process of understanding lead users needs and potentially involving them in development. Lean Manufacturing is a operations philosophy that aims to synchronize production with demand, thereby minimizing inventory and cycle time. Lean Manufacturing is supported during product development with approaches such as robust design, mistake-proofing and standardization. Lean Product Development Lean Product Development is based on the application of the lean thinking principles to developing new products. This starts with defining what is of value to the customer, eliminating waste in the design of a new product by actions to achieve its target cost and making the product manufacturable. It also focuses on eliminating waste in the development process and making the value-creating steps flow with techniques such as pipeline management and pull scheduling. Finally, Lean Product Development requires organizing the right resources on the development team and empowering the team. The final step is to focus on learning, amplify learning across the organization, and continuously improving. Lessons Learned refers to specific lessons that are experienced, learned, and captured or knowledge that is gained during the execution of a project or activity. Lessons learned are captured and documented for others in the organization to learn from, use to improve their performance on a project, and avoid repeating with negative consequences. Level of Detail Level of Detail 8211 the ability to vary the amount of details displayed in a graphics image to improve performance. For instance, at a distance, models can appear as simple 3D figures, but as users zoom in, a more detailed representation is presented. Life Cycle Analysis Life Cycle Analysis is a method to assist with the quantification and evaluation of environmental burdens and impacts associated with product systems and activities, from the extraction of raw materials in the earth to end-of-life disposal. LCA is increasingly used by industries, governments and environmental groups to assist with decision making for environment-related strategies and materials selection. Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle Cost is the total cost to the customer of acquiring, operating, and disposing of a product system over its full life. These costs include development, acquisition, installation, training, operation, support, and disposal. A new product marketed by an organization that already has at least one other product being sold in that product or market area. Line extensions are usually new sizes, models, applications, performance levels, etc. Lines of Code (software) Localization involves customization of the the product, instructions, and the user interface for each local region in which it will be used, by using the local language and taking advantage of local conventions, standards, assumptions, and common defaults. See Internationalization. Low Rate Initial Production 1. Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) is synonomous with a with Field Replaceable Unit (see Field Replaceable Unit). A LRU is a modular component of any manufactured device that is designed to be replaced quickly at an operating location. 2. Lowest Replaceable Unit (see Field Replaceable Unit) Logistics Support Analysis 1. Mechanical Engineer 2. Manufacturing Engineer Mean Time Between Failures Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is a measure of the reliability of a product or piece of equipment. It is equal to the number of failures in a given period divided by the total equipment uptime in that period. It represents the average time between failures for a repairable product for a defined unit of measure (e.g. operating hours, cycles, miles, etc.). Mean Time to Repair Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) is a measure of maintainability of a product or piece of equipment. It is equal to the total or the estimated downtime of the product or equipment in a given period divided by the number of failures or the number of repairs performed in that period. Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems Materials, Energy amp Toxicity. A metric to measure environmental impact of a product. This metric was developed by developed by TNO, a research organization in The Netherlands. Milestone 8211 an important event representing the completion of a major work task or group of work tasks. Milestones are usually scheduled and can be used to measure progress. Reviews are often conducted upon the completion of a milestone. Mistake-Proofing 8211 improving product designs, tooling designs, or processes to prevent mistakes from being made or to quickly and easily detect or mitigate the effect of a mistake. Mistake proofing involves six principles: elimination, replacement, prevention, facilitation, detection, and mitigation (see mistake-proofing for examples). Synonymous with error-proofing and poka-yoke. A modular architecture (as opposed to an integral architecture) is a product architecture where 1) the physical building blocks (e.g. subsystems or subassemblies) perform one or a small number of functions in their entirety, 2) the interactions between the building blocks or interfaces are minimal, well-defined, and generally fundamental to the primary functions of the product, and 3) the building block elements are discrete, interchangeable and individually upgradeable. Modular Design consists of combining standardized building blocks or 8220modules8221 in a variety of ways to create unique finished products. Thus, even though the parts and assemblies may be standardized, the finished product is unique. Morphological analysis is used to identify the necessary product functionality and explore alternative means and combinations of achieving that functionality. For each element of product function, there may be a number of possible solutions. The morphological chart is prepared and used to develop alternative combinations of means to perform functions and each feasible combination represents a potential solution. Memorandum of Understanding Material Review Board 8211 a group that meets periodically within a company to review non-conforming materials and products to determine their disposition and use. see Orthogonal Array The term Object is used to mean a collection of attributes that represent either a physical or logical artifact. For example an Object can represent all the information required for an item or a drawing. The key feature of an Object is that it represents data that can be manipulated as a group, so copying an item Object copies all the attributes associated with the object in one action. Objects are specialized into Classes. An object representing a particular type of bolt, for example, could be in the Class of Objects called bolts. Objects have 8216methods8217. Methods are ways in which the object can be accessed, modified, displayed, etc. Another feature of Objects is inheritance. One class can be based upon another, the new class is called a subclass. The new class will inherit all the attributes of the other class. So you could have a class called bolt with attributes, length, thread type and pitch. You can then create a subclass called brass. The new class would inherit the attributes length, thread type and pitch from the bolt class and have a new attribute 8216brass8217. see Original Design Manufacturer see Original Equipment Manufacturer Object-Oriented Data Base Management System 1. Open innovation is the concept of looking beyond one8217s own organization for innovations, technology and intellectual property as a basis for products, services, and processes. It recognizes that in a world of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or license processes or inventions (i.e. patents) from other companies. In addition, internal inventions not being used in a firm8217s business should be taken outside the company (e.g. through licensing, joint ventures, spin-offs). In contrast, closed innovation refers to processes that limit the use of internal knowledge within a company and make little or no use of external knowledge. 2. 8220Open innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively. This paradigm assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as they look to advance their technology.8221 (Chesbrough) The economic value of the benefit that is sacrificed when an alternative course of action is taken. Original Design Manufacturer Original Design Manufacturer 8211 An external manufacturer who assumes responsibility for the design, development and manufacture of a company8217s products. While the OEM defines requirements, may define elements of the architecture, and owns the intellectual property, the design and manufacture is done by the ODM. Original Equipment Manufacturer The manufacturer whose name goes on a product and who markets and supports the product. In the past, this was the organization that had the highest level of manufacturing, test, integration andor distribution responsibility in the supply chain. Increasingly, one or more of these activities are being outsourced to other manufacturers. On-going Reliability Testing A capability of 2D and 3D modeling systems in which the user defines dimensions and constraints to which the model must conform. Alterations are then automatically reflected in related areas. Parametric Cost Estimating A cost estimating methodology using statistical relationships between historical costs and project and product parameters gathered from similar, but different projects. This methodology typically uses parameters such as weight, power, lines-of-code, or other characteristics of the product or system to estimate or to scale the development cost, product cost andor schedule. System complexity and team maturity are also influencing factors. Pareto Analysis Diagram An analysisdiagramming technique using frequency of occurrence to identify and display results generated by each identified cause. This analysis is commonly used to decide where to apply initial effort for maximum effect. See Pareto Principal. The Pareto principle suggests that 20 of a set of independent variables is responsible for 80 of the result. In quantitative terms, for example, 80 of the problems come from 20 of the causes (machines, raw materials, operators etc.). Therefore, effort aimed at the right 20 can solve 80 of the problems. Classification of parts or other elements of a product by their geometry, material, function andor the processes used to manufacture them (see Group Technology). Part classification is used to find components or subassemblies to use in a product design and to aid in standardization efforts. A data model that contains the complete geometric and functional representation of a part and its characteristics. A comprehensive part model would also contain related analysis, configuration, manufacturing and support data. Participatory Design refers a democratic approach to design that encourages participation in the design process by a wide variety of stakeholders, such as: designers, developers, management, users, customers, salespeople, distributors, etc. The approach stresses making users not simply the subjects of user testing, but actually empowering them to be a part of the design and decision-making process. This is accomplished through direct involvement with the product development team on major projects for one or a small number or customers or through frequent customer or user review and feedback during the development process using mechanisms such as focus groups, web-based customer participation, usability studies, etc. Parts Library (ISO 13584) An international standard that will offer the capability for computer-sensible representation and exchange of part library data. Production Engineering and Planning A Perceptual Map is a visual method for comparing customer perceptions of different products considering two different characteristics of those products. It is used to show relationships between marketplace competitors and the criteria used by buyers in making purchase decisions and recommendations. Perceptual maps may be used for market segmentation, concept development and evaluation, and tracking changes in marketplace perceptions. see Program Evaluation and Review Technique see Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Physical Configuration Audit An engineering inspection of a configuration item (CI) to verify that the item 8220as-built8221 conforms to the 8220as-designed8221 documentation. Physics of Failure Analysis to determine the physical or chemical causes or mechanisms for the failure of electronic components or assemblies. The initial limited-quantity production of the production-ready version of the product design used to confirm readiness for large quantity production. Product Information Management. See Product Data Management Product Improvement Program Pipeline management is the process of managing new development projects that are currently in the pipeline (both proposed and approved). This addresses the management of capacity and resources to undertake the selected projects and the coordination of cross-functional resources to optimize throughput. The centerline spacing from one electronic device pin to another. Plated-Thru-Hole is a method of obtaining electrical connection between components and substrate (printed circuit board) by soldering component leads (or pins) inserted in plated through-holes. see Product Life Cycle Psychological Inertia is the tendency of persons to formulate opinions or attitudes, make decisions or seek known or familiar solutions to problems based on their current frame of reference, experience, and training. 1. see Plated-Thru-Hole 2. synonymous with Pin-Thru-Hole Pugh Concept Matrix The Pugh Concept Matrix is used to a) evaluate multiple design concepts and select the preferred concept alternative and b) synthesize the best elements of other concepts into an improved concept (which may be a hybrid or variant of the best of other concepts. The Pugh matrix is useful because it does not require a great amount of quantitative data on the design concepts, which generally is not available at this point in the process. Printed Wiring Board Printed Wiring Circuit Random Function Determination A value analysis methodology that list basic and secondary functions performed by a component or product in a verb-noun format. Rapid Application Development Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a way of developing a system by completing an initial working part of the system, and then incrementally adding to it every few months. Instead of waiting to finish the entire system, the system owners can put the system into use earlier. Development tools such as visual programming and computer-assisted software engineering help with RAD. 1. Rapid Prototyping refers to various technologies such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering that can rapidly create parts for visualization, product mock-ups, or functional product prototypes or produce rapid tooling to manufacture small to medium volumes of parts. Rapid prototyping or 3D printing processes involve devices, ranging from office modelers to four-ton machines, that accept 3D CAD files, slice the data into cross-sections, and construct layers from the bottom up, bonding one on top of the other, to produce physical prototypes. 2. More generally,it is the process of quickly generating prototypes or mockups of what a product system will look like. Rapid prototyping may be done with paper prototypes such as sketches, low-fidelity physical prototypes, CAD visualization, rapid application development, or video prototyping. Rapid Manufacturing refers to the use rapid prototyping technologies to directly manufacture low volumes of parts. Rapid Tooling refers to the use rapid prototyping technologies to fabricate tooling in a much shorter period of time than conventional tooling. Rapid tooling technologies include methods such as RTV molds, high-speed milling, centrifugal casting, etc. Root Cause and Corrective Action A statistical process control (SPC) chart that monitors the range (variability) of the process. A sample of parts is collected from the process periodically. The range (maximum minus minimum) of the sample is plotted on the control chart and a determination is made if the process is 8220under control8221 or not. Research and Development Rapid Decision-Making Practices Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation Recurring Cost, Recurring Expense or Recurring Production Cost The recurring cost of producing each unit a product. This would typically include direct materials, direct labor, direct process costs, allocated overhead, and any outside processing costs. The recurring cost is typically the basis for a target cost. Another term for these cost is Unit Production Cost (UPC). Register Transfer Level Register Transfer Level (RTL) 8211 a system definition described in terms of registers, switches (multiplexers), and operations. RTL design flow represents an advance in the EDA design process over gate-level design flow. The probability that an item will continue to function at customer expectation levels at a measurement point, under specified environmental and duty cycle conditions. British Standard Institute BS4778: The ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. A predictive tool used to estimate the 8220life8221 of a product. This is usually expressed in terms of hours as 8220mean time between failure8221 (MTBF). Reliability Prediction is the analysis of parts and components in an effort to predict the rate at which an item will fail. A reliability prediction is one of the most common forms of reliability analyses. A function, feature or capability that a product must provide or meet to satisfy the customer8217s needs and enterprise8217s objectives for a new product. See Product Requirement. Requirements Allocation Matrix Requirements Allocation Matrix is a matrix showing the allocation of a requirement (e.g. reliability, weight, cost) to various subsystems or subassemblies so that requirement can be accurately flowed-down and the satisfaction of the overall requirement can be tracked and managed. The determination of product-specific performance and functional characteristics based on analyses of: customer needs, expectations. and constraints operational concept projected utilization environments for people, products, and processes and measures of effectiveness. See Scope Creep The process of deriving and allocating requirements to all levels of system decomposition. Requirements Engineering can be defined as the systematic process of developing requirements through the process of analyzing the problem or need, documenting the resulting requirements to solve the problem or meet the need in a variety of representation formats, and checking the accuracy of the understanding gained. Requirements Engineering focuses on 8220what8221 needs to be designed. Requirements Engineering is not a one time activity but instead should be revisited at every stage of the development process to find out if the requirements have changed at all and if not are they being met. Requirements Management is the process of managing the initial development of requirements and the subsequent changes to requirements to assure that they address only what is needed or required of the product and that adequate consideration is given to tradeoffs in product cost, development cost, development schedule, and competitor actions. Requirements Management exercises control over the project scope to avoid scope creep and unnecessary or deferrable nice-to-have featurescapabilities. The evidence of an association between a requirement and its source, its implementation, and its verification. Return on Investment Return on Investment is a financial analysis technique which compares the expected return to the outlay or investment to determine a percentage of return. The point in the product life cycle that products are released for first sale to customers. Production is usually still at low rate, the customers that the product is sold to may need to meet certain requirements, and there may be special support capabilities provided to the product at this point. 1. Reverse Engineering is the process of capturing the geometry of existing physical objects and then using the data obtained as a foundation for designing a duplicate of the original or an entirely new adaptation. Other terms include Digital Shape Sampling and Processing (DSSP), 3D Scanning, 3D Data Capture, and Optical Scanning. 2.Reverse engineering refers to the procedure of carefully dismantling and inspecting a competitors product to look for design features that can be incorporated into ones own product. Request for Proposal Request for Quotation A management process consisting of identification, assessment, mitigation, and management of all project, technical and market risks using formal tools and methods. Risk Priority Number Risk Priority Number (RPN) is used in FMEA analysis to rank the importance of different types of failure. RPN Severity x Occurrence x Detection Reliability and Maintainability Design of the product in a manner to desensitize the product to variation including misuse and increase the probability that it will perform as intended. The condition of a product or process where its operating parameters remain relatively stable with a minimum of variation even though factors which influence operation or usage. such as wear or environment, change. see Return on Investment A root cause is an antecedent source of a defect such that if it is removed, the defect is decreased or removed itself. Root Cause Analysis Root Cause Analysis Study of original reason for nonconformance with a process. When the root cause is removed or corrected, the nonconformance will be eliminated. Root Sum of Squares Root Sum of Squares (RSS) is a tolerancing method that makes use of RSS to determine the best tolerance limits. RSS assumes that the print tolerance equals - 3 standard deviation limits and part nominal equals print nominal. This analysis exploits the manufacturing probability that a part is not always at its minimum or maximum value. It does not take into account process mean shifts (tool wear) and assumes the process is always centered. See Rapid Prototyping The sum of products and services to be provided as part of a project. The tendency for project requirements to grow over time, usually resulting in huge, unmanageable projects. As some projects progress, especially through development, requirements continuously change incrementally, causing the developer to add to the work scope with consequent increases in the time and budget required. Synonymous with requirements creep. Screening is the process of evaluating and selecting new product ideas or concepts for development. These evaluation criteria include fit with company strategy, fit with other productsproduct lines, fit with customers and markets, profitability, growth, risk, investment requirements, technical capabilities, core competencies, etc. see Software Configuration Management A graphical representation of costs, hours, technological progress and other factors. The name is derived from the S-like shape of the curve that is flatter at the beginning, accelerates sharply, and then tails-off. As it relates to technology, the S-Curve is flat when the technology is first invented (technology performance improves slowly and incrementally). Then, as experience with a new technology accrues, the rate of performance increase grows and technology performance increases by leaps and bounds. Finally, some of the performance limits of a new technology start to be reached and performance growth slows. Analysis of of modes of operation unanticipated during design that result in unexpected system behavior and potential failure. Soft Systems Methodology Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) assumes differing viewpoints between individuals regarding a problem. It tries to move toward consensual action between these conflicting views. SSM is a goal-driven, iterative process with a philosophy of continual improvement for which process is more important than the result. SSM requires a facilitator to provide an unbiased viewpoint and is indicated for use when the facing a complex, organizational problem. SSM is useful for providing a structure for understanding complex programs. Software Architecture refers to the high-level structure of software systems. The architecture of a software system identifies a set of components that collaborate to achieve the system goals. The architecture specifies the 8220externally visible8221 properties of the component, i.e. those assumptions other components can make of a component, such as its provided services, performance characteristics, fault handling, shared resource usage, etc. It also specifies the relationships among the components and how they interact. Software Configuration Management Software Configuration Management (SCM) is the specialization of Configuration Management (see Configuration Management) for software systems over their lifecycle. A set of activities that results in software products. Software development may include new development, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products. Software Development Plan A Software Development Plan (SDP) is a document describing a developer8217s plans, process and methodology for conducting software development. That field within computer science responsible for the establishment and use of sound engineering principles and methods in order to economically obtain reliable and functional software. Software Quality Assurance The process, procedures and controls to ensure that software produced can be verified to meet the requirements and specifications and, ultimately, the user8217scustomer8217s needs. A geometric modeling method that completely and unambiguously describes both the exterior and interior of a part or assembly in three dimensions (geometry, topology and mass properties). Society of Logistics Engineers The determination of sources from which goods andor services may be obtained to meet the needs of a new product during development and production. see Statement of Work 1. Statistical Process Control 2. Software Productivity Consortium Special Causes (of variation) Special Causes are causes of variation in output from a manufacturing process or system of procedures that is not due to the inherent operation of the process or system itself (common causes), but is due to the intrusion into the system of a one-time or external cause of variation. One-time or external causes do not spring from the system, and so are preventable 8211 i.e. their occurrence can be prevented. Consequently, the reason for each special cause must be investigated and steps then taken to see that it does not occur again. The presence of a special cause of variation must be determined statistically. This is done by knowing that variation in output due to common causes follows a regular pattern corresponding to the Normal curve 8211 i.e. with an average and a deviation on either side of the average within three standard deviations. Variation due to a special cause results in a performance outside these statistical limits. Product and process characteristics designated by the customer governmental, regulatory or safety agencies andor the supplier through knowledge of the product or process. 1. The document that prescribes the requirements with which the product or service has to conform. 2. As used with QFD, Specifications are the particular measures or metrics to define a product requirement. Synonymous with target value in this context. 3. Specifications are boundaries, usually set by management, engineering, or customers, within which a system must operate. They are sometimes called engineering tolerances. Spiral Development Model The Spiral Development Model combines the Waterfall Development Model (see Waterfall Development Model) and the prototype approach. It consists of a series of partial implementations or releases of the product. This approach is useful when the risks are significant, there is a needopportunity to field a partial system in a short amount of time, and the requirements are not completely understood or can change over time. Key assumptions with the Spiral Development Model are a) the initial release is sufficient to key system stakeholders that they will continue to participate in its evolution b) the architecture of the initial release is scalable to accommodate the full set of system life cycle requirements c) and the userscustomers are sufficiently flexible to adapt to the pace of system evolution. see Software Quality Assurance A portion or phase of the product development process with a clear objective of milestone that ends with a stage-gate review before authority is granted to proceed with the next stage or phase. Stage-Gates or phase gates refer to management reviews or decision gates that are structured at key points in the development process (typically at the end of one stagephase or before the start of the next development stagephase) to review the opportunitydevelopment effort, assess it from a business perspective and determine whether it is worthy to continue development or to kill the project. A widely employed product development process that divides the development effort into distinct time-sequenced stages or phases separated by management decision gates. Product teams must successfully complete a prescribed set of related activities in each stage prior to obtaining management approval to proceed to the next stage of product development. The framework of the Stage-Gate process includes work-flow and decision-flow paths and defines the supporting systems and practices necessary to ensure the processs ongoing smooth operation. Standard Cost is the predetermined or planned cost of manufacturing a single unit or of providing a single unit of service. It represents a goal or baseline that is used to project cost, based on experience andor analysis. Standardization or parts, materials, modules and assemblies makes possible the interchangeability of these items among products, resulting in higher volume production and purchasing, lower investment in inventory, easier purchasing and material handling, fewer quality inspections, and less difficulties in production. Statement of Work Statement of Work is a narrative description of products and services to be supplied under contract or as part of a project. Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (ISO 10303) 8211 An international product data standard to provide an complete, unambiguous, computer-interpretable definition of the physical and functional characteristics of a product throughout its life cycle. A rapid prototyping (RP) process, introduced in 1987 by 3D Systems Inc. which launched the RP industry. A Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machine builds physical models in this manner: it focuses an ultraviolet (UV) light onto the surface of a vat filled with liquid photopolymer. The light beam, moving under computer control, draws each layer of an object onto the surface of the liquid. Wherever the beam strikes the surface, liquid changes to solid. 3D parts are built from the bottom up, one layer at a time when the part is finished, it is exposed to UV light for curing. A product portfolio management approach in which management allocates scarce resources across strategic dimensions to buskets such as geographical areas, business units, markets, types of development projects (e.g. new products, upgrades, line extensions, platform development), etc. Structured Analysis and Structured Design Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SASD) is composed of two parts 8211 Structured Analysis and Structured Design. Structured Analysis is composed of an Essential Model, an Environmental Model, a Behavioural Model and lastly an Implementation model. The Essential Model is a model of what the system must do, the Environmental model defines the scope and interaction between the system and the world. The Behavioural Model specifies the required behaviour of the system so that it can interact with it8217s environment. Lastly, the implementation model implements the system. The Structured Design section is divided into three levels. The Processor Model assigns processes to processes. The Task Model assigns processes and data to tasks. Lastly, the Program Implementation Model is an internal definition of individual tasks. Structured Design breaks up the program into a hierarchy of modules with a computer program as the result. Structured Systems Analysis Structured Systems Analysis uses process and data perspective to analyze, develop and document the requirements of a system. Structured Systems Analysis uses dataflow diagrams, entity relationship diagrams, data dictionaries to communicate with designers and describe the requirements. Substance Field Analysis Substance Field Analysis (or Su-Field Analysis) is a TRIZ methodology used to model a system in terms of substances or objects which interact through field such as a force. According to the model, a problem is viewed as incomplete or harmful and can be solved by correcting the model and applying the analogous correction to the system. A supplier becomes 8220certified8221 when it has delivered parts with perfect quality over a pre-specified time period (say six months). At that point, inspection is no longer needed. A supplier is 8220qualified8221 when a customer when it has been determined that the supplier is capable of providing a part. Technology roadmaps of the suppliers current and future product and process technology capabilities. These are typically represented in tabular or graphic form over time to aid in the selection of the appropriate product or process technology for a new product. Supply Chain Management The procurement, stocking and distribution of components, subassemblies and products throughout the design, manufacturing, and distribution stages, ensuring that the correct components, subassemblies and products are delivered to their appropriate destination at the proper time, the lowest overall cost, and acceptable quality levels. A 3D modeling technique to describe geometry by its surfaces. This is typically used where surface shape is critical such as the design of auto body panels and aerostructures and industrial design. Surface Mount Technology Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is a method of attaching electrical components directly to a board substrate rather than through a plated hole. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis 8211 a process where by a group of people determine: a) what strengths do we have (how can we take advantage of them) b) what weaknesses do we have (how can we minimize them) c) what opportunities are there (how can we capitalize on them) d) what threats might prevent us from getting there (consider technical obstacles, competitive responses, values of people within the organization, etc.). For every obstacle identified, what can we do to overcome or get around it (This helps to develop contingency plans.) Synthesis is an EDA process which reads a high-level electronic design description and implements it at a lower level of abstraction. Legacy synthesis tools produce a gate-level implementation, at which point the design netlist is handed off to the IC layout process. More recent developments have synthesis becoming more tightly integrated with the IC layout process in order to better achieve convergence of goals such as timing. The process of designing a system that comprises the interaction and integration of subsystems and subassemblies into a single system that performs an intended function. The sub-assemblies can consist of electrical, mechanical, optical, software, and other components to achieve overall functionality. Systems engineering is the process of specifying the system requirements, allocating the system requirements to the hardware and software components, specifying the interfaces between the hardware and software components, and monitoring the design and development of these components to ensure conformance with their specifications. Systems engineering transforms an operational need into a description of system performance parameters and a system configuration through the use of an iterative process (e.g. definition, syntheses, analysis, design, test and evaluation, etc.) integrates related technical parameters and assure compatibility of all physical, functional, and program interfaces in a manner which optimizes the total system definition and design and integrates reliability, maintainability, safety, human, and other such factors into the total engineering effort. The successive combining and testing of hardware and software system components in a prescribed manner to prove compatibility and performance. System Integration Team A System Integration Team is a higher-level IPT (see Integrated Product Team) used in a larger program which flows down requirements and workscope in individual IPT8217s, monitors and coordinates their activities from a technical perspective, resolves interface and integration issues, and redirects technical activities when required to assure that the development work is accomplished to meet the overall system requirements. System Requirements Review System Requirements Review (SRR) is a design review at which the system requirements document is reviewed and approved. This review determines which needs of the total user requirements statement will be satisfied by the proposed project. (Digital Circuits) Translation and optimization of an hardware description language specification into a gate-level implementation. Test, Analyze and Fix Test Access Port A quality engineering methodology developed by Genichi Taguchi that includes off-line quality control, on-line quality control, and system of experimental design to reduce costs and improve quality. Taguchi methods are not just a statistical application of design of experiments. Taguchi methods include the integration of statistical design of experiments into a powerful engineering process. The goal is not just to optimize an arbitrary objective function, but also to reduce the sensitivity of engineering designs to uncontrollable factors or noise. This moves design targets toward the middle of the design space so that external variation affects the behavior of the design as little as possible. This permits large reductions in both part and assembly tolerances, which are major drivers of anufacturing cost. Also see Design of Experiments. A market-driven strategy and process that begins with what price a product can sell for in the marketplace to achieve a desired sales volumes. Target cost is then calculated by subtracting the desired profit margin from this target price. The target cost is treated as an independent variable that must be satisfied along with other customer requirements rather than the result of design decisions (dependent variable). This cost would be considered the unit production cost that is expected to be achieved during a mature production stage. Depending on the definition, it may or may not include warranty costs and selling, general and administrative costs. Thermal Coefficient of Expansion Technical Data Package A Team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Characteristics of high-performing teams include: a shared, elevating vision or goal, a sense of team identity, a results-driven structure, competent team members, a commitment to the team, mutual trust, interdependence among team members, effective communication, a sense of autonomy, a sense of empowerment, small team size, and a high level of enjoyment The process of influencing a group of diverse individuals, each with their own goals, needs, and perspectives, to work together effectively for the good of the project such that their team will accomplish more than the sum of their individual efforts could otherwise achieve. A Team Charter is a brief written document used to define the mission and objectives of the team. The charter typically includes a statement of mission, objectives or statement of work background authority, boundary conditions (scope, constraints, resources, and schedule) membership high-level requirements or specifications, and interface responsibilities. A tabular or graphic representation of technology plans mapped against time to guide the selection and use of technology in new product development or represent the technology embodied in future products. Technology Transfer is the process of transferring research and technology from laboratories, government and outside organizations into the enterprise for practical application in new products. The characteristic of a product8217s design that facilitates it8217s testing during developmentqualification, in production, and in the field. A Test Plan identifies the test objectives and details the activities required to achieve these test objectives. The stimulus, measurement, power, loads and any special test equipment or procedure essential to validate proper operation of a device or some predetermined design control or product specification definition. see Test and Evaluation Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (Russian acronym is TRIZ) is a structured methodology developed by Genrich Altshuller for problem solving and innovation based on analysis and codification of technology solutions from millions of patents. Time Box or Time-Boxing Time box or time-boxing refers to a technique for setting interim or end-date goal for a project and the project scope (e.g. list of features in priority order to account for the time available), approach, and plan for achieving the deadline. Time Compression Technologies Time Compression Technologies 8211 technologies to support the product development process, that when effectively integrated into the process, offers opportunity for significant reductions in cycle time. These include CAD, CAE, CAM, PDM and rapid prototyping. 1. Time-to-Market is the cycle time of product development from conception of a new product to initial sale of the new product. 2. Time-to-Market is the dimension of strategy focused on getting products to market quickly as the basis of competition. see Theory of Inventive Problem Solving TL 9000 is a quality management standard for the telecommunications industry built on ISO 9000. Its purpose is to define the requirements for the design, development, production, delivery, installation and maintenance of products and services. Included are cost and performance based measurements that measure reliability and quality performance of the products and services. Tape Layering Machine 1. see Taguchi Methods 2. Technical Manual Tolerance is the upper and lower limits of some dimension or parameter relating to a component part, material or assembly which an actual item must comply with in order for it to be acceptable in procurement or manufacturing. The difference between the upper and lower tolerance is the tolerance spread. Tolerance Design is a step in the design process (following parameter design) where the determination is made of how much variation is acceptable with a design parameter that will still allow the satisfactory functioning of the product to meet the customer8217s needs. Often tolerance design is not adequately considered, and the designer merely specifies standard tolerances which may be inadequate or overstated. Top-Down Design is a design methodology whereby an entire design is decomposed into its major components, and then these components are further decomposed into their major components, etc. The constraints are established early in the design flow, and then are passed on and adhered to by the back-end processes. Trade-off Analysis is the process of making decisions when each choice has both advantages and disadvantages. In a simple tradeoff, it may be enough to list each alternative and the pros and cons. For more complicated decisions, list the decision criteria and weight them. Determine how each option rates on each of the decision score and compute a weighted total score for each option. The option with the best score is the preferred option. Decision trees may be used when options have uncertain outcomes. Test Requirements Specification Language (proposed IEEE standard) Validation is the process of ensuring that the product conforms to defined user needs, requirements, andor specifications under defined operating conditions. Design validation is performed on the final product design with parts that meet design intent. Production validation is performed on the final product design with parts that meet design intent produced with production processes intended for normal production. Value Analysis 8211 an effort to analyze systems and designs to satisfy needed user requirements at sufficient quality (functions) at an optimum cost (maximize value). 1. Value Engineering is a structured methodology for applying value analysis or function analysis to increase customer or user value. 2. A formal technique to eliminate, without impairing essential functions or characteristics, anything that unnecessarily increases the cost of a product. It is a disciplined system for accomplishing the functions that the customer needs and wants at the lowest cost. A multi-part strategy to reduce product variation and make a product more robust or fit to use through design of experiments, design within process capabilities, and process improvement. A capability of 2D and 3D modeling systems in which the user defines a model by dimensions and constraints, which are then solved by a series of simultaneous equations to create and modify geometry. A product data management (PDM) system data storage areas or databases. Information stored in PDM system vaults is controlled by system rules and processes. Verband der Automobilindustrie (German product data exchange standard) see Value Engineering Value Engineering Change Proposal 1. Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. 2. Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. (IEEE) 3. The process of verifying the functional and performance requirements of a design, be it a chip, board, or system. Many different kinds of verification tools are in use today, including simulation, formal verification, various types of physical analysis tools, emulation, and rapid prototyping. Most design verification strategies employ many or all of these approaches to assure the reliability of the final product prior to its manufacture. Hardware description language similar to VHDL (IEEE Standard 1364) The version of an object or product structure is used to distinguish between the changes made to the different object or structure as it changes during its lifecycle VHSIC Hardware Description Language (IEEE Standard 1076-1987, ANSI Standard 1076-1988) 8211 A computer language that provides designers with ability to model computer-simulatable descriptions of digital electronics, to communicate logical and physical interconnection between the models created, and to exchange the resulting digital electronic product data among different organizations. see Hardware Description Language. VHSIC Hardware Description Language-Analog Very High Speed Integrated Circuit The term Virtual Customer refers to the use of technology and, more-specifically, web-based tools to gather customer input and feedback throughout the product development process to better understand and address customer needs. Virtual Prototyping refers to the use of numerical analysis tools to analyze a design instead of building and testing a physical prototype. Technology that enables users to 8220enter8221 and navigate through a computer-generated 3D environment. It allows users to change their viewpoint and interact with objects created in the environment in a way that mimics the real world. VHDL Initiative Toward ASIC Libraries (IEEE 1076) 8211 standards for back annotation, timing, and high-performance primitives for the purpose of speeding the introduction of ASIC libraries. A name given to a particular form of presentation of the project life cycle. Rather than being broken into distinct periods of controlled phases, all activities appear as one long hierarchical succession. A statement or promise made to the customer that a product being offered for sale is fit for the purpose being claimed. The promise concerns primarily what the seller will do if the product performs below expectations or turns out to be defective in some way. The promise (warranty) may be full (complete protection) or limited (some corrective steps), under terms of the Magnuson-Moss Act of 1975. Waterfall Development Model Waterfall Development Model undertakes the development of the entire system in a series of development phases and activities. This approach assumes the following: a) the requirements are knowable in advance of implementation b) the requirements have no unresolved, high-risk implications c) the nature of the requirements will not change very much during development d) the right architecture for implementing the requirements is well understood and e) there is enough calendar time to proceed sequentially. The projects using the Waterfall Development Model are checked for proper execution and quality through validation of entry requirements and exit criteria at each phase. This model contrasts with the Spiral Development Model (see Spiral Development Model). IEEE test language which provides a standard representation for stimulus and response data in support of the design and test of digital devices. see Work Breakdown Structure A failure distribution that is very useful in reliability activities because it can be used to model many other life distributions. By adjusting the beta factor, or shape parameter, of the Weibull distribution, it can be made to model a decreasing, constant, or increasing hazard rate. The Weibull distribution provides reasonably accurate failure analysis and failure forecasts with extremely small samples. Work Breakdown Structure Work Breakdown Structure is a hierarchical tree structure decomposing a project into activities and sub-activities to help define and control the project and its elements of work. Workflow Systems Workflow Management Systems Workflow Systems are systems to support the coordination, communication and control of business processes by means of information technology for the purpose of improving and better managing these processes. Workflow Systems automate a business process, in whole or part, during which documents, information or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules. A geometric model that describes 3D geometry by outlining its edges, similar to a 8220stick figure8221. Worst Case Tolerance Analysis Worst Case Tolerance Analysis 8211 The assembly tolerance is determined by summing the component tolerances linearly. Each component dimension is assumed to be at its maximum or minimum limit, resulting in the worst possible assembly limits. It is a very conservative approach to tolerance analysis and is not the best approach to tolerancing since that it caters to combinations that are extremely unlikely, rather than focusing on a more probabilistic approach. X-Bar Chart A quality control chart that monitors the mean of the process. A sample of n parts is collected from the process every so many parts or time periods. The mean of the sample is plotted on the control chart and a determination is made if the process is 8220under control8221 or not. see Extreme Programming
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