Strategi forex sederhana tidak ada indikator pembangunan berkelanjutan

Strategi forex sederhana tidak ada indikator pembangunan berkelanjutan

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Daftar Isi TENTANG DOKUMEN Tujuan Dokumen APA YANG HARUSKAN KEBERLANJUTAN Dimensi Konsep Keberlanjutan Proyek ANALISIS KEBERLANJUTAN Apa itu Analisis Keberlanjutan Apa itu Strategi Keberlanjutan PENGUKURAN KESUKSESANAN KEBERLANJUTAN KESELAMATAN SUSTAINABILITAS Apa itu Sustainability Monitoring Apa itu Indikator Pemantauan Keberlanjutan Kapan dan Bagaimana Keberlanjutan Pemantauan harus dilakukan Perencanaan untuk Keberlanjutan. Daftar Periksa Proyek Persiapan Manajemen dan Faktor-Faktor Utama yang Mempengaruhi Keberlanjutan Proyek Indikator Pemantauan dan Alat Pengukur Lingkungan Indikator Pemantauan Perhatian: Alat Survey Dokumen ini adalah salah satu dari beberapa panduan, buku pegangan, bahan sumber dan lain-lain yang direncanakan akan diproduksi di bawah UNDP mendukung kegiatan Monitoring dan Evaluasi berdasarkan hasil di Divisi Review Monitoring dan Kemajuan dalam Rencana Pelaksanaan Kementerian. Kesinambungan proyek merupakan tantangan besar di banyak negara berkembang. Sejumlah besar proyek yang diimplementasikan dengan biaya besar seringkali cenderung mengalami kesulitan dalam keberlanjutan. Semua donor utama, seperti Bank Dunia, Bank Pembangunan Asia dan badan bantuan bilateral telah mengungkapkan keprihatinan atas masalah ini. Menurut beberapa studi yang baru-baru ini dilakukan, sementara tren dengan implementasi menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan, tren dengan keberlanjutan pasca implementasi agak mengecewakan - semakin, semakin sedikit proyek yang berkelanjutan. Ini berarti bahwa sementara pengeluaran besar dikeluarkan oleh negara-negara ini dalam melaksanakan proyek, keberlanjutan yang buruk merampasnya dari jumlah yang diharapkan dari investasi ini. Hal ini berarti bahwa sementara hutang dari pengeluaran pembangunan meningkat, keuntungan dari pengeluaran ini sama sekali tidak akan diumumkan secara penuh atau telah diakru pada tingkat yang lebih rendah. Beberapa faktor yang bertanggung jawab untuk keberlanjutan miskin. Beberapa sederhana. Beberapa yang cukup kompleks. Beberapa berada di dalam kendali manajemen proyek, sementara yang lain datang sebagai ancaman eksternal. Beberapa faktor dapat (dan memang harus) diurus tepat pada tahap perancangan proyek, sedangkan yang lain dapat dilacak dan dikoreksi selama implementasi, melalui pemantauan. Oleh karena itu penting bahwa faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberlanjutan diartikulasikan dengan baik dan digabungkan, sejauh mungkin pada tahap perancangan. Nantinya, faktor yang sama dapat ditindaklanjuti melalui pemantauan. Dokumen ini menyajikan berbagai definisi keberlanjutan, menyoroti isu-isu yang mempengaruhi keberlanjutan dan memperkenalkan alat yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan keberlanjutan baik pada perencanaan maupun pada tahap pemantauan proyek. Alat ini bersifat generik dan sama sekali tidak lengkap. Selain itu, alat ini juga mengacu pada beberapa analisis, seperti analisis ekonomi atau estimasi Economic Rate of Return (ERR) untuk menentukan kelayakan ekonomi produk yang diinduksi oleh proyek dan keuntungannya. Demikian pula, analisis sosial diperlukan untuk mengukur elemen ekuitas proyek dll. Sementara alat sederhana untuk Analisis Sosial telah disediakan (Lampiran 4) tidak ada rincian perkiraan ERR yang disertakan dalam dokumen ini. Keterampilan khusus harus diperoleh baik di dalam manajemen proyek itu sendiri atau disediakan dari luar organisasi, untuk melakukan analisis ekonomi. Mudah-mudahan, perencana, manajer dan sponsor proyek menemukan dokumen ini bermanfaat. Saran dari pengguna dokumen ini akan sangat dihargai karena ini akan membantu dalam meningkatkan kualitas dokumen lebih lanjut, di masa depan. Saya mengucapkan terima kasih kepada Direktur Jenderal, Divisi Review Monitoring dan Kemajuan (dari Kementerian Plan Implementation) dan stafnya untuk bimbingan profesional yang diberikan kepada saya, untuk persiapan dokumen ini. 30 November 2000 Dr. Adil Khan, Penasihat Senior UNDP, Monitoring dan Evaluasi, Divisi MPR, Rencana Pelaksanaan Kementerian 1. Tentang Dokumen Ini Dokumen ini adalah pedoman yang menjelaskan: Konsep keberlanjutan Isu yang melibatkan keberlanjutan Daftar periksa indikator yang berguna untuk Analisis Keberlanjutan dan juga, menentukan Strategi Kesinambungan, pada saat merancang sebuah proyek Daftar indikator dan alat untuk pemantauan keberlanjutan dan Diagram alir yang menggambarkan hambatan terhadap keberlanjutan - ini adalah alat tambahan bagi perencana manajer proyek untuk menyadari Elemen yang mengancam keberlanjutan dan oleh karena itu, melakukan upaya untuk menjaga ketentuan untuk mengurangi ancaman ini. 1.1. Tujuan dokumen ini Diharapkan bahwa dokumen ini akan membantu para perencana, para manajer dan pemantau proyek untuk mengetahui masalah yang penting bagi keberlanjutan proyek dan membantu memasukkan unsur-unsur keberlanjutan di tahap perancangan. Alat juga telah disediakan (Lampiran 1) untuk menilai tingkat kehadiran unsur-unsur keberlanjutan. Alat ini bisa digunakan, saat merancang sebuah proyek. Demikian pula, alat juga telah disediakan (Lampiran 3) untuk memantau keberlanjutan. Bagian 2 dari laporan ini membahas konsep dan berbagai dimensi keberlanjutan. Bagian 3 membahas berbagai analisis yang perlu dilakukan untuk menghitung nilai dimensi keberlanjutan yang berbeda. Bagian 4 menjelaskan metodologi pemantauan keberlanjutan. 2. Apa itu Keberlanjutan 1. Konsep Keberlanjutan dapat didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan sebuah proyek untuk mempertahankan operasinya, layanan dan manfaatnya selama masa hidup yang diproyeksikan. Namun, isu keberlanjutan juga harus dilihat dalam waktu dan perubahan konteks sosial, ekonomi dan politik. Sebuah proyek yang dipandang layak dipertahankan hari ini, mungkin tidak akan terjadi di masa depan. Misalnya, jika produksi padi Sri Lanka yang merupakan andalan ekonomi pertanian beberapa tahun yang lalu, nampaknya tidak menguntungkan dan juga tidak berkelanjutan, di bawah kondisi ekonomi pasar saat ini. Ini dan beberapa contoh serupa dari tempat lain menggambarkan bahwa apa yang dulu dianggap penting dan berkelanjutan, mungkin tidak begitu hari ini. Namun, yang juga penting untuk dicatat adalah bahwa jika pemerintah memiliki alasan yang lebih dikenal, memutuskan untuk memberikan dukungan terhadap aktivitas tertentu dan mempertahankan keberlanjutan tanpa memperhatikan kelayakan ekonominya, maka itu adalah pilihan yang telah dibuat oleh pemerintah dan Bahwa isu keberlanjutan kegiatan semacam itu harus dilihat murni dari perspektif keputusan yang diambil oleh pemerintah semacam itu. Oleh karena itu, dalam kasus situasi produksi padi di Sri Lanka, pemerintah dapat memutuskan untuk mempertahankan produksi padi dengan memberikan harga dan bentuk subsidi lainnya kepada produsen dan memastikan keberlanjutan produksinya (dan bukan keberlanjutan ekonomi). Kesinambungan melalui subsidi tersebut tentu saja akan menguntungkan produsen padi dan dengan demikian melayani tujuan sosial, namun hanya dengan biaya investasi lain yang mungkin lebih menguntungkan yang dapat dilakukan dalam ekonomi. Contoh padi yang dikutip di atas menunjukkan bahwa sementara subsidi oleh pemerintah memiliki kemampuan untuk mempertahankan suatu proses produksi tertentu dan dengan demikian menguntungkan sedikit produsen, dalam hal ini petani padi, tindakan semacam itu dapat sama-sama membatasi kegiatan yang memiliki potensi lebih besar dan lebih baik dan lebih banyak lagi. imbal hasil yang berkelanjutan dari usaha-usaha lainnya. Namun, dalam beberapa situasi, pemerintah mungkin masih siap untuk memberikan dukungan terhadap kegiatan yang secara ekonomi tidak berkelanjutan, namun dapat dibenarkan secara politis atau tidak. Jadi saat membahas keberlanjutan, pertanyaan yang perlu ditanyakan: Apa yang ingin dipertahankannya Dalam kegiatan sektor publik keputusan ini sangat penting dan harus dilakukan tepat pada tahap perencanaan. Ini kemudian akan membantu memasukkan unsur-unsur yang relevan untuk keberlanjutan. Namun, pada umumnya keberlanjutan proyek didefinisikan sebagai persentase barang dan jasa yang diprakarsai proyek yang masih diantisipasi dan dipelihara setelah lima tahun penghentian pelaksanaan proyek kelanjutan tindakan lokal yang dirangsang oleh proyek dan generasi penerus layanan dan inisiatif. Sebagai hasil dari inisiatif pembangunan proyek. Definisi ini menyiratkan bahwa keberlanjutan menyangkut dirinya sendiri dengan: Tingkat kelanjutan penyampaian barang dan jasa proyek Perubahan yang dirangsang yang disebabkan oleh proyek Inisiatif baru yang disebabkan oleh proyek Bank Dunia mendefinisikan keberlanjutan, sebagai kemampuan sebuah proyek untuk mempertahankan tingkat yang dapat diterima manfaat mengalir melalui kehidupan ekonominya. Indikator utama yang berkontribusi terhadap keberlanjutan bervariasi dari satu sektor ke sektor lainnya. Untuk proyek sektor ekonomi, indikator utamanya adalah keuntungan ekonomi dan finansial, sedangkan indikator utama untuk proyek sektor sosial akan mencapai tingkat dan sejauh mana pengiriman barang dan jasa, terus berlanjut dan proporsi populasi wilayah sasaran Yang terus menerima manfaat dari kegiatan proyek. 2. Dimensi keberlanjutan proyek Ada beberapa dimensi untuk keberlanjutan proyek. Bergantung pada sifat sektor atau proyek, masing-masing dimensi ini memiliki kapasitas untuk mempengaruhi keberlanjutan proyek dalam satu atau cara atau cara lain. Dimensi ini tercantum di bawah ini. Melanjutkan operasi dan pemeliharaan fasilitas proyek - yaitu proyek ini mendapat dukungan yang diperlukan (baik anggaran maupun kelembagaan) untuk memungkinkannya mempertahankan tingkat fasilitas yang dipersyaratkan. (Logistik Dimensi) Aliran manfaat bersih yang berlanjut - yaitu (untuk proyek sektor ekonomi) memiliki semua biaya dan manfaat dalam berbagai kondisi yang tertimbang dengan benar dan apakah proyek menjamin tingkat pengembalian finansial dan ekonomi yang dapat diterima. (Dimensi Ekonomi) Melanjutkan partisipasi masyarakat (dalam proyek dimana partisipasi masyarakat aktif sangat penting untuk merangsang tindakan baru maupun pemulihan biaya) - yaitu proyek ini melibatkan masyarakat. Telah berhasil mempertahankan tingkat partisipasi masyarakat yang diharapkan dalam kegiatan proyek. (Dimensi Komunitas) Berbagi dan pembagian manfaat proyek yang adil - yaitu mekanisme yang menggabungkan mekanisme yang menjamin pemerataan akses dan distribusi manfaat proyek secara terus menerus. (Dimensi Ekuitas) Stabilitas kelembagaan - yaitu, proyek ini mempertimbangkan secara memadai persyaratan kelembagaan dan dengan demikian membuat ketentuan sehingga manajemen mendukung operasi proyek berlanjut selama masa proyek berlangsung. (Dimensi Kelembagaan) Pemeliharaan stabilitas lingkungan - misalnya, proyek ini mempertimbangkan implikasi lingkungan sehingga dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dapat dihindari atau dikurangi selama masa proyek (Dimensi Lingkungan) Pertimbangan terhadap semua dimensi ini adalah Kunci keberlanjutan proyek. Pengalaman menunjukkan bahwa pelemahan salah satu dari ini memiliki potensi untuk membahayakan keberlanjutan keseluruhan proyek, dalam jangka panjang. 3. Analisis Keberlanjutan Atribut keberlanjutan multi dimensi - seperti yang disebutkan di atas, menyiratkan bahwa untuk meningkatkan keberlanjutan proyek, diperlukan analisis keberlanjutan yang ketat pada saat perumusan sebuah proyek atau program. Diharapkan bahwa analisis semacam itu yang harus ditindaklanjuti dengan pengembangan strategi keberlanjutan akan membantu dalam memasukkan elemen keberlanjutan, tepat pada tahap perancangan proyek. 1. Apa itu Analisis Keberlanjutan Analisis Keberlanjutan adalah identifikasi dan analisis tingkat kehadiran atau tidak adanya faktor-faktor yang mungkin berdampak, baik secara positif maupun negatif terhadap prospek penyampaian manfaat proyek yang berkelanjutan. Lampiran 1 (Perencanaan untuk Keberlanjutan: Daftar cek) menyajikan alat untuk memeriksa aspek keberlanjutan, pada saat merancang sebuah proyek. Daftar Periksa yang mencakup anggota analisis, seperti analisis sosial ekonomi dan analisis keuangan, dan lain-lain penting dan harus dilakukan untuk memastikan penyatuan masukan peningkatan keberlanjutan selama persiapan dan tahap perancangan proyek. Analisis ini mencakup hal-hal berikut: Relevansi Penerimaan Kewajiban Ekonomi dan Keuangan Strategi Implementasi dan Pemantauan Keberlanjutan Lingkungan Operasi dan pemeliharaan pasca operasi Relevansi mengacu pada tinjauan konsistensi (atau kekurangannya) antara tujuan proyek yang diusulkan dengan pemerintah nasional, sektoral, provinsi dan Prioritas kabupaten Seringkali, terlihat bahwa ketika sebuah proyek diambil tanpa memperhatikan berbagai prioritas yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah, kemampuannya untuk menarik dukungan yang dibutuhkan dari berbagai pihak dan kapasitasnya untuk beroperasi di lingkungan yang kondusif, sangat dibatasi. Oleh karena itu, Tes Relevansi diharapkan dapat membantu menganalisa isu-isu ini dan menilai hubungan antara tindakan yang diusulkan dan konsistensi mereka dengan berbagai prioritas yang telah ditetapkan oleh pemerintah. Masalah penerimaan dikaitkan dengan tingkat dan tingkat penerimaan proyek kepada masyarakat, perwakilan lokal, badan pelaksana, dll. Kelalaian yang lemah oleh siapa pun atau lebih dari pihak-pihak ini berisiko mengorbankan keberlanjutan jangka panjang suatu proyek. Kelayakan Finansial Ekonomi mengacu pada keuntungan ekonomi dan keuangan dari produk dan layanan yang diinduksi oleh proyek. Agar produk ini bermanfaat, baik bagi produsen maupun ekonomi, biaya produk harus mencerminkan biaya pasar riil dan harga produk, harga pasar riil, dan yang terakhir harus lebih tinggi daripada yang sebelumnya. Dalam beberapa kasus, proyek yang menginduksi produk dan layanan mungkin tidak mencerminkan biaya pasar dan atau harga yang mungkin berarti bahwa proyek akan menguntungkan peserta langsung atau populasi sasaran, maka akan menimbulkan kerugian ekonomi, di tingkat nasional. Sekarang diakui secara luas bahwa di bawah situasi globalisasi dan liberalisasi saat ini, setiap produk yang diinduksi oleh proyek yang tidak dapat diproduksi dan dijual dengan harga dan harga yang ditentukan oleh pasar dan tidak dapat memperoleh keuntungan dalam kondisi ini, tidak akan bertahan dan juga tidak akan bermanfaat. Untuk ekonomi. Kelayakan Lingkungan Sustai berkaitan dengan dampak lingkungan yang diinduksi proyek - baik positif maupun negatif. Jika dampak negatif diramalkan dan tidak ada tindakan mitigasi yang direncanakan, maka pada akhirnya proyek dapat menghasilkan keuntungan pada tingkat yang dikurangi atau yang lebih buruk lagi dan tergantung pada tingkat biaya lingkungan, dampak negatif tersebut dapat berkontribusi pada kerugian bersih bagi perekonomian. Strategi Implementasi dan Pemantauan mengacu pada pertimbangan pengaturan manajemen proyek - mis. Adalah periode implementasi yang realistis. Apakah ada rencana implementasi yang jelas dengan fungsi dan tanggung jawab yang didefinisikan dengan jelas dan memiliki ketentuan yang diperlukan darinya. Cukup sering manajemen yang lemah dan tidak memadainya ketentuan pemantauan yang berkontribusi terhadap masalah implementasi yang kemudian melemahkan keberlanjutan proyek. Post pelaksanaan operasi dan pemeliharaan (OampM) mengacu pada dukungan manajemen (baik oleh badan pelaksana atau masyarakat atau keduanya) yang dibutuhkan setelah pelaksanaan proyek. Cukup sering proyek cenderung menghadapi masalah keberlanjutan karena dukungan OampM yang lemah atau tidak memadai. Analisis keberlanjutan harus diikuti oleh pengembangan strategi keberlanjutan, sehingga memastikan bahwa semua elemen peningkatan keberlanjutan digabungkan tepat pada tahap perancangan proyek. 3.2. Apa itu strategi keberlanjutan Strategi keberlanjutan adalah tindak lanjut dari aktivitas analisis keberlanjutan dan diharapkan dapat menunjukkan bagaimana berbagai elemen keberlanjutan harus diidentifikasi, dinilai dan dimasukkan ke dalam proyek atau program, tepat pada tahap perancangan. Strategi ini diharapkan dapat menentukan berbagai kendala pelengkap terhadap keberlanjutan dan membuat ketentuan untuk penanganan penggabungan mereka selama: (i) perumusan formulasi (ii) implementasi, dan (iii) tahap operasi dan pemeliharaan sebuah proyek. Elemen yang melengkapi keberlanjutan proyek telah disebutkan di bagian sebelumnya. Kita perlu melakukan penelitian analitik yang diperlukan untuk menentukan variabel-variabel ini dan memasukkan faktor-faktor mitigasi yang sesuai. Kadang juga bermanfaat untuk menentukan faktor-faktor yang menghambat keberlanjutan. Definisi faktor penghambat juga merupakan cara yang berguna untuk menentukan strategi keberlanjutan. Lihat Lampiran 2, untuk diagram alir, Persiapan Proyek dan Manajemen dan Faktor Utama yang Mempengaruhi Keberlanjutan Proyek. Dokumen ini menjelaskan isu atau dimensi yang menghambat keberlanjutan dan menggambarkan bagaimana isu-isu ini juga saling terkait. Lampiran 2 juga menyoroti beberapa Peristiwa Eksternal yang mempengaruhi keberlanjutan proyek. Oleh karena itu, penting bagi perencana proyek untuk menyadari elemen-elemen ini dan mengembangkan strategi untuk meningkatkan keberlanjutan. Misalnya, jika proyek tertentu mempertimbangkan tanggung jawab bersama antara badan pelaksana dan masyarakat untuk melakukan operasi dan pemeliharaan pasca implementasi, tahap perancangan untuk mencapai hal ini. 4.0. Pemantauan Berkelanjutan Pengukuran Keberlanjutan Langkah selanjutnya dalam keberlanjutan proyek adalah pemantauan keberlanjutan. Aspek pemantauan keberlanjutan (beberapa menyebutnya penilaian keberlanjutan) ikut bermain, segera setelah sebuah proyek masuk dalam implementasi. Banyak juga istilah latihan ini sebagai evaluasi proses dan akhir-akhir ini, ada yang menyebutnya, hasil berbasis monitoring dan evaluasi. 4.1. Apa itu pemantauan keberlanjutan Pemantauan dan pengembangan strategi untuk pemantauan berkelanjutan merupakan inti dari sebuah proyek atau manajemen program. Hal ini terbukti dari daftar periksa analisis keberlanjutan, bahwa ada berbagai faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi kelestarian. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting bahwa mekanisme pemantauan yang direncanakan dengan baik diterapkan untuk menilai status keberlanjutan, pada interval reguler. Ini akan membantu pelacakan masalah terkait keberlanjutan lebih awal dan memberikan umpan balik yang diperlukan untuk penyesuaian dan meningkatkan prospek keberlanjutan. Hal ini berguna untuk mendasarkan pemantauan tersebut pada indikator yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya. 4.2. Apa Indikator Pemantauan Keberlanjutan Indikator Pemantauan Keberlanjutan adalah rambu-rambu yang menunjukkan status keberlanjutan pada tahap atau titik waktu tertentu dari suatu proyek. Karena isu keberlanjutan menyangkut berbagai faktor dan karena ini bersifat multi dimensi (misalnya ekonomi, masyarakat, kesetaraan, kelembagaan, logistik dan lingkungan), indikator pemantauan yang mewakili masing-masing dimensi perlu diidentifikasi memisahkan dan mengukur masyarakat. Misalnya, untuk memantau dimensi ekonomi, keberlanjutan proyek, indikator yang telah digunakan dalam Economic Rate of Ration (ERR) - yang berarti terhadap dimensi ekonomi keberlanjutan, satu untuk memperkirakan kembali tingkat pengembalian ekonomi (ERR ) Terhadap nilai penilaian. Jika nilai saat ini jauh lebih rendah daripada nilai penilaian, maka proyek tersebut kemungkinan akan menghadapi kesulitan keberlanjutan. Demikian pula, untuk menilai elemen partisipasi masyarakat, perbandingan antara target yang diketahui (yaitu proporsi penerima manfaat yang diharapkan berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan proyek) dan tingkat yang dicapai saat ini (yaitu proporsi penerima manfaat yang berpartisipasi secara aktif) akan mengungkapkan status pencapaian Indikator vital keberlanjutan ini. Begitu juga dengan penerapan berbagai indikator, status prestasi ekuitas. Kelembagaan. Logistik dan dimensi lingkungan juga bisa dipastikan. Dalam hal ini, sama pentingnya untuk mengetahui bahwa tim multi-disiplin mungkin diperlukan untuk memantau aspek multi-dimensi keberlanjutan. Sistem penilaian mulai dari 1 (miskin) sampai 3 (kuat) terhadap setiap indikator disarankan dalam dokumen ini. Nilai rata-rata nilai individu diharapkan dapat memberikan keseluruhan ukuran keberlanjutan sebuah proyek. Pada waktu tertentu jika nilai rata-rata diperkirakan kurang dari 2, untuk sebuah proyek kemungkinan proyek tersebut menghadapi masalah keberlanjutan yang serius. Apa pun di atas 2 adalah positif. Lihat Lampiran 3 untuk Indikator Pemantauan Keberlanjutan dan Alat Pengukuran. 4.3. Kapan dan bagaimana Pemantauan Keberlanjutan yang akan dilakukan Pemantauan Berkelanjutan atau Penilaian Keberlanjutan yang juga merupakan inti dari evaluasi proses diharapkan dimulai sejak dimulainya pelaksanaan proyek. Namun, tidak semua dimensi keberlanjutan diharapkan dapat mengungkap diri mereka pada tahap awal sebuah proyek. Misalnya, dimensi keberlanjutan ekonomi dan lingkungan diharapkan dapat mengungkapkan diri mereka pada tahap proyek yang lebih matang, katakan setelah enam bulan sampai satu tahun operasi itu. Namun, perhatian terus menerus terhadap berbagai masalah keberlanjutan lainnya seperti kelembagaan, logistik dan komunitas dll akan membantu mendeteksi penyimpangan (jika ada) pada tahap awal dan memastikan pengenalan tindakan perbaikan sebelumnya. Alat survei sederhana, dengan kuesioner semi terstruktur dianeksasi di sini untuk membantu penilaian keberlanjutan aspek kelembagaan, logistik, keadilan dan masyarakat dari suatu proyek. Lihat Lampiran 4 untuk Indikator Pemantauan Kontak Penerima Manfaat: Alat Survei Pemantauan keberlanjutan diharapkan dilakukan setiap tahun, dengan bantuan tim multi-disiplin. Namun, diharapkan beberapa aspek pemantauan keberlanjutan seperti aspek kelembagaan, logistik dan masyarakat harus dilakukan selama fase pemantauan proyek yang lebih rutin. Bamberger, M. dan Cheema, S. (1990). Studi Kasus Keberlanjutan Proyek, Implikasi Kebijakan dan Operasi dari Pengalaman Asia. Bank Dunia, Washington D.C. 1990. Khan, M. Adil (1993). Mengelola Keberlanjutan Proyek: Konsep dan Isu Utama dalam Administrasi Pembangunan, dalam Jurnal Pembangunan Pedesaan Asia Pasifik. CIRDAP. Dhaka. Edisi musim semi 1993 Khan, M.Adil, J. Barat dan Hossain, duri (1992) Keberlanjutan Proyek Sektor Sosial: Pengalaman Asia. Bank Dunia. Washington D.C 1992 Indikator Pemantauan Berkelanjutan dan Alat Pengukuran YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEBERLANJUTAN PROYEK. Indikator Pemantauan Kontak Penerima Manfaat Bank Dunia (BCM): Alat Survei untuk Analisis Sosial Indikator berikut, yang diungkapkan dalam bentuk kuesioner semi-terstruktur dikenal sebagai Indikator Pemantauan Kontak Penerima Manfaat. Indikator ini berguna untuk menilai ekuitas dan dimensi kemasyarakatan suatu proyek. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini dapat diajukan baik dengan mensurvei populasi sampel yang dipilih secara acak atau melalui diskusi kelompok yang terfokus: Apakah masyarakat mengetahui fasilitas proyek (proporsi penilaian umum orang-orang yang sadar akan hal tersebut) Berapa proporsi masyarakat yang memiliki akses terhadap Fasilitas proyek atau diuntungkan darinya Dari mereka yang memiliki akses, proporsi apa yang termasuk kaya, berpenghasilan menengah dan miskin Dengan cara apa masyarakat memperoleh keuntungan (pendapatan, taraf hidup yang lebih tinggi, produktivitas yang lebih tinggi, dll) Tanggung jawab siapa yang harus dipelihara dan Mengoperasikan fasilitas proyek Apakah peralatan dan fasilitas proyek terjaga dengan baik Apakah penerima manfaat berbagi biaya atau memberikan kontribusi pada bagian operasi dan pemeliharaan Jika hal tersebut di atas tidak, mengapa tidak Apakah masyarakat terus menggunakan fasilitas proyek Jika sebagian dari Masyarakat yang sebelumnya berpartisipasi dalam proyek dan tidak sekarang, mengapa tidak Merencanakan Keberlanjutan: Daftar Periksa (Ini i S menyarankan bahwa pada saat perumusan sebuah proyek baru, daftar cek ini terisi dan dilampirkan pada proyek dokumen.) Indikator Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Penulis: Adam Mannis, University of Ulster Kata untuk indikator dalam bahasa Arab adalah pointer. Indikator menunjukkan hasil yang diinginkan, ke arah mana yang ada di arena kebijakan. Berbagai tingkat data untuk tujuan kebijakan ditampilkan di Piramida Informasi. Di bagian bawah piramida adalah data. Yang tidak diproses nilainya kecil untuk tujuan kebijakan. Setelah data diproses menjadi statistik atau tabel, data tersebut dapat digunakan dalam laporan atau sebagai dasar untuk evaluasi ad-hoc, namun tetap saja seringkali sulit dipahami atau digunakan untuk kebijakan. Indikator adalah statistik yang diarahkan secara khusus terhadap masalah kebijakan dan yang mengarah pada hasil dan kesimpulan yang berhasil untuk kebijakan. Mereka biasanya sangat agregat dan mudah dikenali. Indikator klasik termasuk tingkat pengangguran atau pertumbuhan PDB, angka yang merupakan indikator kinerja yang kuat dan dapat dikenali sehingga dapat menyebabkan pemerintah jatuh. Pada tingkat tertinggi adalah indeks. Seperti indeks harga konsumen atau indeks pembangunan manusia, yang menggabungkan berbagai indikator menjadi satu nomor yang berguna untuk perbandingan dari waktu dan tempat. Mengukur dan memantau kondisi lingkungan menjadi perhatian utama Pemerintah dan organisasi internasional selama tahun 1990an. Beberapa inisiatif internasional utama mencakup kegiatan UNSTATUNEP, termasuk rangkaian Laporan Data Lingkungan dan Lingkungan Negara Bagian (1994), pengembangan database Earthwatch dan permulaan pengembangan serangkaian indikator lingkungan. Badan lain seperti OECD dan WHO telah terlibat dalam pengembangan kerangka konseptual. 2.0 Indikator yang Baru Dikembangkan Tumbuh terwujudnya kegagalan GNP konvensional dan pendapatan karena indikator utama kemajuan ekonomi telah mendorong pengembangan tolok ukur alternatif. Dua upaya baru yang menarik adalah Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM) yang dirancang oleh United Nations Development Programme and Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) yang dikembangkan oleh ekonom Herman Daly dan teolog John Cobb. Indikator ketiga, konsumsi gandum per kapita, adalah ukuran perubahan kesejahteraan yang berguna di negara-negara berpenghasilan rendah, di mana data yang dibutuhkan untuk menghitung indeks yang lebih canggih biasanya tidak tersedia setiap tahun. Indeks Pembangunan Manusia, yang diukur pada skala 0 sampai 1, merupakan gabungan dari tiga indikator: umur panjang, pengetahuan, dan komando mengenai sumber daya yang dibutuhkan untuk kehidupan yang layak. Untuk umur panjang, tim PBB menggunakan harapan hidup saat lahir. Untuk pengetahuan, mereka menggunakan bahasa melek huruf dan rata-rata tahun bersekolah. Dan untuk komando atas sumber daya, mereka menggunakan produk domestik bruto (PDB) per orang setelah menyesuaikannya dengan daya beli. Karena indikator ini adalah rata-rata nasional, mereka tidak secara langsung berhubungan dengan ketidaksetaraan distribusi kekayaan, namun dengan memasukkan umur panjang dan kemampuan baca tulis mereka secara tidak langsung merumuskan distribusi sumber daya. Harapan hidup rata-rata yang tinggi, misalnya, mengindikasikan akses luas terhadap perawatan kesehatan dan persediaan makanan dan air minum yang memadai. Perbandingan negara-negara yang diberi peringkat oleh produk domestik bruto per kapita (disesuaikan dengan daya beli) dan HDI mengungkapkan beberapa perbedaan yang luas. Kosta Rika berada di urutan ke-40 dalam HDI, sementara Afrika Selatan, dengan PDB per kapita disesuaikan 27 persen lebih tinggi dari Costa Ricas, masuk di nomor 57. Meskipun daya beli rata-rata mereka rendah, Costa Ricans memiliki tingkat melek huruf orang dewasa 92 persen, dibandingkan Dengan hanya 85 persen di Afrika Selatan, dan saat kelahiran dapat bertahan hidup 13 tahun lebih lama dari Afrika Selatan yang baru lahir. Argentina, Cile, Polandia, dan Yugoslavia termasuk negara-negara lain yang menunjukkan perkembangan manusia yang tinggi dengan pendapatan per kapita yang relatif rendah. IPM masih berkembang, peringkat negara yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1991 sangat berbeda dalam beberapa kasus dari tahun 1990, tahun pertama indeks, karena penyempurnaan yang dilakukan oleh tim PBB. Karena semakin banyak data yang tersedia, HDI akan mulai menangkap faktor penentu pembangunan manusia lainnya juga. Misalnya, cukup informasi yang sudah ada di 30 negara untuk memasukkan ketidaksetaraan gender di HDI. Ketika ini dilakukan, peringkat teratas Jepang turun ke nomor 17, sementara Finlandia, di mana perempuan memiliki hak dan peluang ekonomi yang sebanding dengan mens, naik dari 13 ke angka 1. Demikian pula, HDI yang peka terhadap distribusi pendapatan telah dihitung untuk 53 negara yang bisa menyediakan data yang dibutuhkan lagi, rangkingnya berubah bila faktor penting ini disertakan. Sementara IPM merupakan perbaikan yang berbeda dari angka pendapatan sebagai ukuran kesejahteraan manusia, sejauh ini tidak ada yang mengatakan mengenai degradasi lingkungan. Akibatnya, IPM dapat meningkat melalui keuntungan dalam melek huruf, harapan hidup, atau daya beli yang dibiayai oleh penipisan sumber daya alam, yang menetapkan panggung untuk penurunan kondisi kehidupan yang lebih lama. Indeks Kesejahteraan Ekonomi Berkelanjutan Daly-Cobb, di sisi lain, adalah indikator kesejahteraan yang lebih komprehensif, dengan mempertimbangkan tidak hanya konsumsi rata-rata tetapi juga distribusi dan degradasi lingkungan. Sampai saat ini, hanya dihitung untuk Amerika Serikat. Setelah menyesuaikan komponen konsumsi indeks untuk ketidaksetaraan distribusi, penulis memasukkan beberapa ukuran lingkungan, seperti menipisnya sumber daya tak terbarukan, hilangnya lahan pertanian dari erosi tanah dan urbanisasi, hilangnya lahan basah, dan biaya polusi udara dan air. Mereka juga memasukkan apa yang mereka sebut sebagai marker kerusakan lingkungan jangka panjang, sebuah angka yang mencoba memperhitungkan perubahan skala besar seperti efek pemanasan global dan kerusakan lapisan ozon. Menerapkan ukuran komprehensif ini menunjukkan peningkatan kesejahteraan per orang di Amerika Serikat sekitar 42 persen antara tahun 1950 dan 1976. Namun setelah itu ISEW mulai menurun, jatuh lebih dari 12 persen pada tahun 1988, tahun terakhir dimana dihitung . Sederhananya, sekitar 15 tahun yang lalu, manfaat bersih yang terkait dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi di Amerika Serikat turun di bawah pertumbuhan populasi, yang menyebabkan penurunan kesejahteraan individu. Kelemahan utama ISEW adalah ketergantungannya pada informasi yang tersedia hanya di segelintir negara. Sebagai contoh, beberapa negara berkembang memiliki data komprehensif mengenai tingkat polusi udara dan air, belum lagi pengukuran perubahan dari tahun ke tahun. Kelemahan yang sama berlaku untuk IPM, karena data harapan hidup sangat bergantung pada informasi kematian bayi yang mengejutkan, terkumpul paling lama satu dekade di sebagian besar Dunia Ketiga. Konsumsi gandum per kapita, bagaimanapun, adalah ukuran kesejahteraan yang berguna di negara-negara berpenghasilan rendah yang dapat dilacak setiap tahunnya. Indikator ini menangkap kepuasan kebutuhan dasar manusia, karena orang tidak dapat bertahan jika konsumsi gandum tahunan turun di bawah 180 kilogram (sekitar 1 pound sehari) untuk waktu yang lama. It is also less vulnerable to distortion by inequities of income and wealth. While the distribution of wealth between the richest and poorest one fifth of a population can be as great as 20 to 1, as indeed it is in Algeria, Brazil, and Mexico, per capita consumption of grain by these same groups will not vary by more than 4 to 1. One drawback with this indicator is that it says nothing about how much of the grain consumed was produced unsustainably - by eroding soils, depleting water supplies, and the like. Another is that at some point, higher per capita grain consumption starts to imply a deterioration in human well-being rather than an improvement. Toward the top end of the scale people are consuming fat-rich livestock products known to increase heart disease and colon, breast, and other types of cancer, leading to an overall reduction in life expectancy. Per capita grain consumption is therefore best used as an indicator of well-being only in poorer countries. 3.0 Computing the Human Development Index The HDI is based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth educational attainment, as measured by a combination of adult literacy (two-thirds weight) and combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratios (one-third weight): and standard of living as measured by real GDP per capita (PPP). For the construction of the index, fixed minimum and maximum values have been established for each of these indicators: Life expectancy at birth: 20 years and 85 years Adult literacy: 0 and 100 Combined enrolment ratio: 0 and 100 Real GDP per capita (PPP): PPP100 and PPP10,000 For any component of the HDI, individual indices can be computed according to the general formula: Actual x 1 value - minimum x 1 value Index Maximum x 1 value - maximum x 1 value If for example, the life expectancy at birth in a country is 65 years, the index of life expectancy for this country would be: 65 - 25 40 Life expectancy index 85 - 25 60 0.667 The construction of the income index is a little more complex. The average world income of PPP5.711 is taken as the threshold level (y ), and any income above this level is discounted using the following formulation based on Atkinsons formula for the utility of income: W(y) y for 0 lt y lt y y 2(y. y ) 12 for y lt y lt 2y y 2 (y 12 ) 3 (y. 2y ) 13 for 2y lt y lt 3y To calculate the discounted value of the maximum income of PPP40.000, the following form of Atkinsons formula is used: W(y) y 2(y 13 ) 3(y 13 ) 4(y 14 ) 5(y 13 ) 6(y 16 ) 7(t 17 ) 8(40,000. 7y ) 18 This is because PPP40,000 is between 7y and 8y . With the above formulation, the discounted value of the maximum income of PPP540,000 is PPP6,040. The construction of the HDI is illustrated with two examples - Greece, an industrial country and Gabon, a developing country: 53.7 - 25 28.7 Gabon 85 - 25 60 0.478 Adult literacy index: 93.8 - 0 93.8 Greece 100 - 0 100 0.938 60.3 60.3 Gabon 100 - 0 100 0.603 Combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio index 18 - 0 Greece 100 - 0 0.780 47 - 0 Gabon 100 - 0 0.470 Educational attainment index Greece 2(0.938) 1(0.780) cedil 3 0.885 Gabon 2(0.603) 1(0.470) cedil 3 0.558 Adjusted real GDP per capital (PPP) index Greeces real GDP per capital at PPP8,950, is above but less than twice the threshold. thus, the adjusted real GDP per capita for Greece would be PPP5,825 because 5,825 5,711 2(8.950 - 5,711)12 Gabons real GDP per capita, at PPP3,861, is less than the threshold, so it needs no adjustment. The adjusted real GDP per capita (PPP) index for Greece and Gabon would be: 5,825 - 100 5,725 Greece 6,040 - 100 5,940 0.964 3,861 - 100 3,761 Gabon 6,040 - 100 5,940 0.633 Human development index The HDI is a simple average of the life expectancy index, educational attainment index and the adjusted real GDP per capita (PPP) index. It is calculated by dividing the sum of these three indices by 3. The HDI values for Greece and Gabon are calculated using this formula: Life expectancy index 4.0 Monitoring Progress on Sustainable Development: Sustainable Development Indicators Refer to undp.orgundpdevwatchindicatr.htm The document below is an EXTRACT from a Report of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD), United Nations Division for Sustainable Development. 4.1 Introduction Chapter 40 of Agenda 21 calls for the development of indicators for sustainable development. In particular, it requests countries at the national level, and international governmental and non-governmental organisations at the international level to develop the concept of indicators of sustainable development in order to identify such indicators. This issue was raised during the first two sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), at which time a large number of countries emphasized the urgent need for these indicators. Other countries expressed some concern and insisted that indicators be developed in close contact with Governments. Pursuant to the multi-year programme of work adopted by the Commission at its first session, the progress achieved on developing these indicators, in the context of Chapter 40 of Agenda 21, will be discussed by the Commission during its third session. The objective of this work programme is primarily to make the indicators for sustainable development accessible to decision-makers at the national level by defining them elucidating their methodologies and providing training and other capacity-building activities, as relevant. Indicators, as used in national policies, may also be used in the national reports to the CSD and other intergovernmental bodies. 4.2 Indicators for Sustainable Development An increasing number of organisations has responded to the challenge of Agenda 21 to develop indicators for sustainable development in the short-term. Some of this work is being undertaken around specific issues, such as health and the environment, or human settlements others are attempting to define a full set of indicators. Such redundancy and overlap has been extremely valuable, since it has generated more creative thinking and a shared sense of purpose. The role of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable development, as Task Manager of this issue, is now to coordinate the fruits of this work, to underline areas of convergence, and to bring together the many actors in a broad, cooperative programme that may directly serve the needs of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as well as all Member States. Much further work, primarily by the scientific community, is needed in order to understand and explicate these interlinkages. Economic indicators have ben used for many years at national, regional and international levels. Social indicators have also been developed over the past years and are widely used all over the world. It is feasible to select among the economic and social indicators those which capture the specific issues most relevant to sustainable development. Institutional indicators related to Agenda 21 or sustainable development are largely undeveloped and are at this stage limited to so-called yesno indicators. Environmental indicators have been developed more recently. For some of the environmental aspects, data will not be easily available. Recent initiatives include the environment statistics programme of the United Nations Statistical Commission, environmental indicators being developed by UNEP, the UN system-wide Earthwatch . the OECD, various relevant international legal instruments, and so forth. Based on relevant indicators that are available, it is proposed that the Commission on Sustainable Development agree that work will proceed on the basis of a core set of indicators, as contained in Table 1 (see Indicator Template on main menu ), with the understanding that this is a flexible, working set of indicators that will be fine-tuned to the needs of countries after further methodological work, testing and training. It is further proposed that the Commission approve the work programme on indicators for sustainable development, including the following elements: (1) preparation of methodology sheets for distribution to governments (2) testing of the indicators, on a voluntary basis, in three to four countries and their subsequent adaptation, as needed (3) organisation of national and regional training workshops and other capacity-building activities, upon request and (4) evaluation and readjustment of the indicators on the basis of experience and further research as national and international levels, including in the context of international legal instruments. It is also proposed that the Commission of Sustainable Development encourage continued cooperation with the work underway on environment indicators under the auspices of the United Nations Statistical Commission. 4.3 Highly Aggregated Indicators Concurrently, work may proceed with developing highly aggregated indicators for sustainable development. Although this represents a longer-term effort, it is important for three reasons: it explores the relationship among the variable, which lies at the heart of the linkages intrinsic to sustainable development it concentrates information collection and analysis and facilitates presentation to decision-makers and, it may serve as the basis of an early warning systems, if desired. A project is now being undertaken by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), in cooperation with UNEP, aiming at developing highly aggregated indicators for sustainable development. This initiative is currently focusing on the environmental aspects of sustainability although the project could be broadened to focus on other aspects of sustainable development, as well. 4.4 A Core Set of Indicators for Sustainable Development: A core set of indicators, as contained in Table 1 ( see Indicator Template on main menu) is proposed for monitoring progress at a national level towards sustainable development through the implementation of Agenda 21. It is fully recognised that there is need for flexibility as the conditions, activities and priorities for sustainable development differ from country to country. At same time, the need for international comparability calls for the development of standardised concepts, definitions and classifications of indicators. As mentioned, regional workshops and capacity-building programmes are needed in order to facilitate the use of the core set of indicators at a national level. Testing of the indicators in three to four countries could be used to gain experience and further develop the indicators, and evaluation of the use of the indicators at the national level, and national and international developments, could be used to adjust the core set of indicators if necessary. The indicators in the core set are presented in a Driving Force - State - Response (DSR) framework. The DSR framework is adopted from the widely agreed framework for environmental indicators, the Pressure - State - Response framework. The concept of quotpressurequot has been replaced by that of quotDriving Forcesquot, in order to accommodate more accurately the addition of economic, social and institutional indicators. quotDriving forcequot indicators indicate human activities, processes and patterns that impact on sustainable development, quotstatequot indicators indicate the quotstatequot of sustainable development and quotresponsequot indicators indicate policy options and other responses to the changes in the quotstatequot of sustainable development. In the core set, the indicators are grouped in categories covering the economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of sustainable development. The indicators are related to chapters of Agenda 21. The coverage of the four aspects of sustainable development and of all the chapters of Agenda 21 ensures that the most significant aspects of sustainable development are monitored by the indicators. The indicators in the proposed framework have been developed in accordance with the following criteria: (a) primarily national in scale or scope (countries may also wish to use indicators at state and provincial levels) (b) relevant to the main objective of assessing progress towards sustainable development (c) understandable in that they are clear, simple, and unambiguous (d) realizable within the capacities of national governments, given their logistic, time, technical and other constraints (e) conceptually well founded (f) limited in number, remaining open-ended and adaptable to future developments (g) broad in coverage of Agenda 21 and all aspects of sustainable development (h) representative of an international consensus, to the extent possible and (i) dependent on data which are readily available or available at reasonable costbenefit ratio, adequately documented, of known quality and updated at regular intervals. As noted, the core set of indicators may change and new indicators may be included, for example, in the context of international legal agreements, or as national level experience is gained. Furthermore, there are some potentially important indicators which require further methodological work before they can be used. This is especially the case for various ecosystem (geo-referenced) indicators, including biodiversity and other habitat indicators, and for the following issues, for which indicators are not included in the core set at this stage: - transfer of technology (driving force, state and response indicators) - science (driving force, state and response indicators) - capacity-building (driving force, state and response indicators) - decision-making structures (driving force indicators) - strengthening of quottraditional informationquot (driving force and response indicators) - role of major groups (driving force and response indicators) - oceans, all kinds of seas and coastal areas (response indicators) - desertification and drought (response indicators) - sustainable mountain development (driving force, state and response indicators) - biotechnology (driving force, state and response indicators) and, - toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes (response indicators). Research and experimentation with advanced economic, social and institutional indicators that might more effectively measure progress toward sustainable development and continued research and experimentation with environmental indicators appropriate for measuring progress toward sustainable development should be endorsed. There may also be need for subsets and other, often more comprehensive, sets of indicators for other purposes. Table 1: Core Set of Indicators for Sustainable Development Chapters of Agenda 21 Driving Force Indicators Chapter 8, 38, 39, 40: Decision-making structures o Mandated EIA (yesno) o Programmes for national environmental statistics and indicators for sustainable development (yesno) o Sustainable development strategies (yesno) o National councils for sustainable development (yesno) o Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants (no) o Ratification of international agreements related to sustainable development (no) Strengthening of quottraditional informationquot (part of ch. 40) o Representatives of indigenous people in national councils for sustainable development (yesno) o Existence of database for traditional knowledge information (yesno) Chapter 23-32: Role of major groups Chapter 18: Freshwater resources o Annual withdrawals of ground and surface water as of available water o Industrial municipal discharges into freshwater bodies (tm 3 ) o Household consumption of water per capita (m 3 ) o Groundwater reserves (m 3 ) o Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and pesticides in freshwater bodies (mgl) o Concentration of faecal coliform in freshwater bodies (no100 ml) o Acidification of freshwater bodies (pH value) o BOD and COD in water bodies (mgl) o Waste water treatment ( of population served, total and by type of treatment) Chapter 17 (5): Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas and coastal areas o Catches of marine species (t) o Deviation in stock of marine species from maximum sustained yield (MSY) level () o Ratio between MSY abundance and actual average abundance () o Loading of N and P in coastal waters (t) o Algae index Chapter 10: Planning and management of land resources o Land use change (kmsup2) o Area affected by soil erosion (kmsup2)erosion index o Protected area as of total land area Chapter 12: Combatting desertification and drought o Fuelwood consumption per capita (m 3 ) o Livestock per kmsup2 of arid and semi-arid lands o Land affected by des ertification (kmsup2) desertification index Chapter 13: Sustainable mountain development Chapter 14: Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development o Use of fertilizers (tkmsup2) o Use of agricultural pesticides (tkmsup2) o Arable land per capita (hacapita) o Area affected by salinisation and waterlogging (kmsup2) o Cost of extension services provided (US) o Area of land reclaimed (kmsup2) Other natural resources Chapter 11: Combatting deforestation (7) o Deforestation rate (kmsup2annum) o Annual roundwood production (msup3) o Change in biomass () o Timber stocks (msup3) o Forest area (kmsup2) o Reforestation rate (kmsup2annum) Chapter 15: Conservation of biological diversity o Rate of extinction of protected species () o Threatened, extinct species (no) o Protected area as of total land area Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere o Emissions of CO 2 (t) o Emissions of SO x and NO x (t) o Production of ozone destroying substances (t) Ambient concentrations of SO 2 . CO 2 . NO x and O3 in urban area (ppm) o Expenditure on air pollution abatement (US) o Reduction in the consumption of ozone destroying substances ( per year) o Reductions in the emissions of CO 2 . SO x and NO x ( per year) Chapter 21: Solid wastes and sewage-related issues o Waste disposed (t) o Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t) o Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US) o Waste recycling rates () o Municipal waste disposal (tcapita) o Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (tyear) Chapter 19, 20, 22: Toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes o Generation of hazardous waste (t) o Area of land contaminated by toxic waste (kmsup2) Notes to Table 1 1. Production and consumption patterns are also reflected in particular by the following indicators: o Share of manufacturing value added in GDP (under economic) o Export concentration ratio (under economic) o Ratio of consumption of renewable resources over non-renewable resources (under economic) o Motor vehicles in use (under social) o Household consumption of water per capita (under environmental, water) o Fuelwood consumption per capita (under environmental, land) o Production of ozone destroying substances (under environmental, atmosphere) o Reduction in the consumption of ozone destroying substances (under environmental atmosphere) 2. Consultations with WHO are ongoing. 3. Consultations with HABITAT are ongoing. 4. Following the SIDS Programme of Action, indicators of vulnerability are to be developed. 5. Consultations with FAO are ongoing. 6. Consultations with FAO are ongoing for these chapters (10, 12, 13, 14). 7. Consultations with FAO are ongoing. 5.0 Environmental Indicators The pressure-state-response framework, follows a cause-effect-social response logic. It was developed by the OECD from earlier work by the Canadian government. Increasingly widely accepted and internationally adaopted, it can be applied at a national level, at sectoral levels, at the levels of an industrial firm, or at the community level. Pressure indicators measure policy effectiveness more directly -- whether emissions increase or decrease, whether forest depletion waxes or wanes, and whwether human exposure to hazardous conditions grows or shrinks. Accountability for the pressures each country exerts on the environment is claer -- as in the case of the amount of ozone-degrading gases emitted. These indicators are not only descriptive. They can also provide direct feedback on whether policies meet stated goals because they are based on measures or model-based estimates of actual behaviour. Pressure indicators are thus particularly useful in formulating policy targets and in evaluating policy performance. They can also be used prospectively to evaluate environmental impacts of socioeconomic scenarios or proposed policy measures. Response indicators measure progress toward regulatory compliance or other governmental efforts, but dont directly tell what is happening to the environment. As a practical matter, data to construct indicators is usually most available for pressure indicators and sparsest for response indicators. Core lists of environmental issues -- and of relevant indicators -- have been and are being developed by several organisations, building on the OECDs initial work. Such indicators can be organised within the pressure-state-response framework into a matrix of indicators. Table 2 is adapted from such a matrix under consideration by UNEP (World Resources Institute, 1995). Table 3 shows a similar matrix adapted from one being considered by the World Bank (World Resources Institute, 1995). Table 4 is a pressure-state-response model for indicators of sustainability in land and natural resources use (Winograd, 1993) World Resources Institute (1995) quotEnvironmental Indicators: A Systematic Approach to Measuring amp Reporting on Environmental Policy Performance in the Context of Sustainable Developmentquot . World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Winograd, M (1993) quotEnvironmental Indicators for Latin America and the Caribbean: Towards Land Use Sustainabilityquot . Organisation of American States, and World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Table 2: Matrix of Environmental Indicators under consideration by UNEP (World Resources Institute, 1995) I Source Indicators 1. Agriculture a Land Quality b Other 2. Forest 3. Marine Resources 4. Water 5. Subsoil Assets a. Fossil Fuels b. Metals amp Minerals Value AddedGross Output Human-Induced Soil Degrad Land Use Changes, Inputs for EDP Contaminants, Demand for Fish as Food Intensity of Use Extraction Rate(s) Extraction Rate(s) Extraction Rate(s) Cropland as of wealth Climatic Classes amp Soil constraints Area, volumes, distribution value of forest Stock of Marine Species Accessibility to Pop. (weighted of total) Subsoil assets wealth Proven Reserves Proven Reserves RuralUrab Terms of Trade InOutput ratio, main users recyc rates Coverage of Intl ProtocolsConv. Water efficiency measures Material balancesNNP Reverse Energy Subsidies InOutput ratio, main uers recyc rates II Sink or Pollution Indicators 1. Climate Change a. Greenhouse Gases b. Stratospheric Ozone 2. Acidification 3. Eutrophication 4. Toxification Emissions of CO 2 Apparent Consumption of CFCs Emissions of SO x . NO x Use of Phosphates(P), Nitrates(N) Generation of hazardous wasteoad Atmosph. Concentr. of Greenhouse Gases Atmosph. Concentr. of CFCs Concentr, of pH, SO x NO x in precipitation Biological Oxygen Demand, P, N in rivers Concentr. oflead, cadmium, etc. in rivers Energy Efficiency of NNP Coverage of Intl ProtocolsConv. Expenditures on Pollution Abatement Pop. wwaste treatment Petrol unleaded III Life Support Indicators 1. Biodiversity 2. Oceans 3. Special Lands (eg wetland) Land Use Changes Threatened, Extinct species total Protected Areas as Threatened IV Human Impact Indicators 1. Health a. Water Quality b. Air Quality c. Occupatl Exposures etc 2. Food Security amp Quality 3. HousingUrban 4. Waste 5. Natural Disaster Burden of Disease (DALYspersons) Energy Demand Population Density (personskm 2 ) Generation of industrial, municipal waste Life Expectancy at birth Dissolved Oxygen, faecal coliform Concentr. of particulates, SO 2 etc Accumulation to date NNP spent of Health, vaccination Access to safe water NNP spent on Housing Exp. on collect. amp treatmt. recyc. rates Table 4: Pressure-State-Response Model for Indicators of Sustainability in Land and Natural Resource Use (Winograd,1993) Level and Scale Population Growth Density on Land Population Distribution Measure of increase Ratio with Surface Area Urban-Rural Ratio Total Population Density Urban and Rural Country, Bioregion, Region, Local Country, Bioregion, Region, Local Country, Bioregion, Region Developt Socio- economics Production Increase Production Increase Purchasing Power Employment External Debt International Prices Social Welfare Health Conditions Conditions of Nutrition Condition of Education State of the Population Measure of Increase Ratio with Population Purchasing Power Parity Level of Employment External Debt-Export Ratio Exports-Imports Price Ratio Level of Human Development Life and Mortality Expectancy Malnutrition and Calorie Intake Male and Female Literacy Population-Poverty Ratio Annual Growth of GDP GDP per capita Real GNP per capita of Unemployment External Debt and Debt Service as of Exports Terms of Trade Ratio Index of Human Dev Life Expectancy and Infant Mortality Rate of Malnourished Children and Daily Chronic Intake of Literacy of Incidence of Poverty Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Agriculture and Food Food Production Food Production Food Consumption Agricultural Inputs Land Availability Land Concentration Production Orientation Soil Condition Condition of Hillside Soil Condition of Hillside Soils Production Potential Land Availability Land Availability Load Capacity Production Orientation Orientation of Production Measure of Increase Measure of Increase Measure in Calorie Intake Growth in Use of Inputs Agricultural Land and Pop Inequality of Land Distribution Grain Production and Destination Ratio Ratio with Hillside Lands Soil Limitations Soil Potential Agricultural Land, Population, and L evel of Inputs Ratio Agricultural Land and Potential Population Ratio Potential and Current Agricultural Land Ratio Population Potential and Level of Inputs Ratio Production of Drugs and Employment Ratio Changes in Food Consumption Change in Production and Yield Index of Food Production Calories per capita and Change in Calorie Supply Annual Fertilizer and Pesticide Use Agricultural Land per capita GINI Coefficient of Grain consumed by livestock of Agricultural Lands of Soil with Limitations Potential Agricultural Land Necessary Agricultural Land Agricultural Land per capita Potential for Land Expansion Ratio of Support Capacity Production of Drugs Food Sources Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region, Local Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Local Ener gy and Materials Production of Bioenergy Bioenergy Production Production Potential Hydroelect Resources Hydroelect Production Hydroelect Potential Hydroelect Prod Materials consumption Firewood and Coal Prod-Pop Ratio Production and Require ratio Production of Bienergy Generation Capacity Production and Capacity Ratio Generation Potential Generation and Surface Area Ratio Consumption and Population to Surface Area Ratio Firewood and Coal per capita Traditional Fuels as a of Total Requirements Bioenergetic Potential Installed Hydroelect Cap of the Capacity Gen Exploitable Hydroelct Pot Kilowatts Generated per flooded hectare Per capita materials consumption Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Ecosystems and Land Use Change in Primary Productivity Change in Land Use Employment and production Land Production Impact of Land Use Impact of Land Use Measurement of Primary Production Measurement of the Change in Patt erns of Use Relationship Among Jobs and Surface Area, People Fed Economic Production Measure of Emissions and Changes in Use Intensity Urban and Rural Emissions Relationship Current and Natural Primary Production Change Jobs per hectare Annual Production and Value Net Emissions, Species Used and Years of Use Equivalent People Using Fossil Fuels Bioregion, Region Country, Bioregion, Region, Local Country, Bioregion, Local Country, Bioregion, Local Country, Bioregion, Local Country, Bioregion, Local Forests and Pastures Cover of Vegetation Decrease of Forests Earnings from Forests Change in Forest Surface Area Change in Forest Surface Area Production of Forests Forest Potential Forest Potential Cover of Vegetation Livestock Population Load Capacity Production of Pastures Economic Value Type of Forest Deforestation of Dense and Open Forest Reforestation in Dense and Open Forest Annual Deforestation Ratio of Deforestation and Reforestation Relationship of Production and Population Ratio o f Wood Reserves and Population Ratio of Production and Reserves Change in Surface Area of Pastures Measurement of Increase Measurement of Increase Measurement of Increase in Meat Production Ratio of Surface Area and Export Value Surface Area of Dense and Open Forests Annual Deforestation Annual Reforestation Annual Deforestation Rate Ratio of Deforestation and Reforestation Wood Production per capita Wood Reserves per capita and by hectare Ratio of Production Reserves Change in Pastures Change in Livestock Index of Load Capacity Change in Meat Prod Dollars per hectare Country, Bioregion, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Local Decrease in No Species Decrease in No Species Decrease in No Species System of Protect Areas Use of Biodiversity Risk of Species Disapp Investment in Protection Economic Value Economic Value Rat io of Threatened Species to Total quot quot quot quot Ratio of Threatened Species to Surface Area Ratio of Protected Areas to Total Ratio of Used Species to Total Relationship of Investment and Surface Area Relationship of Investment and Surface Area Economic Production Profitability of Investment Threatened Animal Spe Threatened Animal Spe Threatened Plants per 1000 km of Protected Areas Index of Vegetation Use Index of Species Disappearance Risk Dollars per 1000 hectares Protected Value of Prod Current Net Value Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Local Country, Bioreg, Local Country, Region Country, Local Country, Local Atmosphere and Climate Emissions of Greenhouse Gasses Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Increase in Emission Through Change in Land Use Increase in Total Emissions Relationship of Activities and Change in Land Use Ratio of Current and Accumulated Emissions Inc idence of Natural Disasters Emissions of CO Es Carbon Total and per capita Emissions of CO Es Carbon Total per capita and per GNP Emissions of CO Eq Carbon by Activity Current and Accumulated Emissions of CO per cap Population, Affected and Economic Losses Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Region Bioregion, Region Country, Region Country, Region Information and participation Environmental information Societal Participation Public Option Countries with Environmental Profiles and Inventories Possibility of Participation in Decisions Importance of Environment No of Environmental Profiles and Inventories No of NGOs per Area of Activity Perception of Environmental Problems Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Treaties and Agreements Environmental Policy Sources of Financing for Conservation Participation in Treaties and Agreements Debt-for-Nature Swaps Signing and Ratification of International Treaties Funds Generated for Conservation Country, Region Country, Region, Local Land Use P rojections Land Use Potential Land Need Current and Potential Use Vegetation Land Use Consequences of Land Use Cost and Investment for Development Potential Land Use Ratio of Potential Productive Land to Population Ratio of Needed Agricultural Land to Level of Inputs Ratio of Current to Potential Productive Land Ratio of Land Use to Pop Additions to Greenhouse Gases Ratio of Necessary Surface Area and Cost of Land Use Ratio of Actual to Potential Use Cost Potential Productive Land per capita Agricultural Land Necessary in 2030 Index of Land Use Deforestation Rate and Ratio of ReDeforestation Agricultural Land and Forests per capita Net, total, and per capita Additions Net, Total, and per capita additions Average Annual invest Cost and Benefit of Rehabilitation Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Local Potential for Mitigating the Consequences of Land Use Ratio of Poten tial Surface Area to Absorption of Carbon Carbon Absorption through Reforestation and Agroforestry 6.0 Indicator Sources Social Indicators of Development contains data for assessing human welfare to provide a picture of the social effects of economic development. Data are presented for more than 170 economies. Up to 94 indicators are reported for each country including: size, growth, and structure of population determinants of population growth education and illiteracy natural resources and transport and communication. The data set is available at the following URL: Trends in Developing Economies (TIDE) provides brief reports on most of the World Banks borrowing countries. This compendium of individual country economic trends complements the World Banks World Development Report. The data set is available at the following URL: Habitat II Indicators (refer to Table 5) lists a framework of indicators for analysing Urban and Human Settlement Conditions, developed for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (known as Habitat II), which was held in Istanbul in June 1996. Table 5: Habitat II Indicators for Urban amp Human Settlements MODULE O :- BACKGROUND DATA Indicator DA1: Birth and death rates Crude birth and death rates are defined as births and deaths per 1000 population. Indicator DA2: Migration rates Net migration. (A) within country, (b) overseas, (c) total Indicator DA3: Household type Number of households with (a) more than one adult and children, (b) single parent households, (c) more than one adult, no children, (d) one person only Indicator DA4: Household expenditure Proportion () of average household income spent on: (a) food, (b) housing, (c) travel, (d) other Indicator DA5: Dwelling type Number of: (a) detached dwellings, (b) medium density dwellings, (c) apartments, (d) total URBAN INDICATORS MODULE 1 :- SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POVERTY Indicator A1: Illiteracy of poor Defined as the percentage of poor aged 15 and over who are illiterate Indicator A2: Daily kilojoule supply of poor Defined as the ratio of average food Calories consumed by poor to the average number of Calories needed to sustain a person at normal levels of activity and health Indicator A3: Malnourished children under five Defined as the percentage of children, from one to five years of age who are more than two standa rd deviations from the median weight for age of the reference population (or WHO standards). Indicator A4: Social safety net Support to the population provided by the city locally or nationally. EMPLOYMENT Indicator A5: Unemployment rates by sex Defined as the average proportion of unemployed during the year, as a fraction of the (formal) workforce, by sex. Indicator A6: Employment growth Defined as the average annual growth rate of the number of (formally) employed men and women, aged 15 and above, during the last 5 years. Indicator A7: Child labour Defined as the number of employed or economically active persons under 15 years of age. Indicator A8: Minimum wage coverage Defined as the proportion of the economically active population whose wage or salary income is covered by minimum wage legislation. PRODUCTIVITY Indicator A9: City investment Defined as gross capital formation in the city, divided by city product. Indicator A10: Airport activity Defined as the average monthly number of passengers having used the airport (both for departure and arrivals) during the year. HEALTH AND EDUCATION Indicator A11: Expenditure on social services Defined as the total expenditure, both capital and recurrent, public and private, on social services in US dollars per person. Indicator A12: Life expectancy at birth Defined as expected number of years till death for a new-born child. Indicator A13: Infectious diseases mortality Defined as the proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases. Indicator A14: School enrollment rates The percentage of children of eligible age, by sex, who are enrolled in: (a) primary school, (b) secondary school. Indicator A15: Adult literacy rate Defined as proportion of adults who can read and write a simple paragraph about their everyday life. Indicator A16: Tertiary graduates Defined as the proportion of male graduates in all adult males, and female graduates in all adult females. SOCIAL INTEGRATION Indicator A17: Refugees Defined as percentage of the population who are refugees. Indicator A18: Deaths due to violence Defined as the proportion of deaths in the city in the past three years that have occurred as a result of violence. MODULE 2 :- INFRASTRUCTURE ACCESS AND AFFORDABILITY Indicator A19: Cost to household income ratios Defined as median expenditure on services divided by median household income or (a) water, (b) sewerage, (c) electricity. WATER Indicator A20: Source of water Percentage of households obtaining water as a primary source from: (a) piped connection, (b) communal tap, (c) vendor or truck, (d) well, stream, lake or dam, (e) others. Indicator A21: Piped water supply reliability Defined as average number of hours per year that households in the city are without piped water. Indicator A22: Water leakage Defined as percentage of piped water unaccounted for and lost through leakage, seepage or unauthorised use. SEWAGE Indicator A23: Sewage disposal Proportion of households with the following types of latrine facilities: (a) sewerage pipe, (b) underground individual, (c) underground communal, (d) pan collection, (e) open ground or trench, (f) other. Indicator A24: Public latrines Defined as the number of public latrines per 10000 population. ELECTRICITY Indicator A25: Electricity price Defined as the price of electricity in US dollars per kwh. Indicator A26: Line losses Defined as percentage of power supplied to the city that is unaccounted for or lost before reaching final destination. Indicator A27: Capacity to load ratio Defined as peak load to certified capacity ratio. TELEPHONE Indicator A28: Call completion rate Defined as proportion of calls made which connect and are not interrupted. INFRASTRUCTURE OPERATIONS Indicator A29: Operating to staff ratios Defined as proportion of operating costs spent on staff, for all authorities providing the following services in the metropolitan area: (a) water, (b) sewerage, (c) electricity. Indicator A30: New connections to staff ratios Defined as number of new connections per annum divided by number of staff in supplying authorities for the following services (a) water, (b) electricity, (c) telephone. Indicator A31: Revenue to operation cost ratio Defined as percentage of all operating costs met from own-source revenues in the following services: (a) water, (b) sewerage MODULE 3 :- TRANSPORT GENERAL Indicator A32: Transport facilities Defined as the proportion of deaths per thousand in the last year from transport related causes. Indicator A33: Fuel price Defined as the price in US cents per litre, including tax, of: (a) petrol (gasoline), (b) diesel, (c) LPG or CNG. Indicator A34: Transport household budget share Proportion of total household income spent on all forms of travel by: (a) all households, (b) poor households. Indicator A35: Transport fuel consumption Defined as the annual number of litres per person of transport fuel (excluding aviation fuel) consumed. ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE Indicator A36: Length of road per vehicle Defined as total length of roads in km divided by total number of road vehicles, for (a) surfaced roads, (b) unsurfaced roads Indicator A37: Road congestion Defined as the proportion of roads with VolumeCapacity gt0.8 during peak hour ROAD VEHICLES Indicator A38: Vehicles failing emission standards Defined as proportion of road vehicles which do not meet local emission standards Indicator A39: Automobile fuel consumption Average fuel consumption in litres per 100 km for automobiles for: (a) the whole fleet, (b) new cars. Indicator A40: Pedestrians killed Defined as proportion of road fatalities who are pedestrians. PUBLIC TRANSPORT Indicator A41: Public and mass transport seats Defined as number of public transport seats per 1000 population. Indicator A42: Cost recovery from fares Defined as the ratio of fares collected by public transport authorities to operating costs. MODULE 4 :- ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AIR QUALITY Indicator A43: Air pollution concentrations Number of days per annum that WHO standards are exceeded, an average annual measured concentrations for the following pollutants: (a) SO2, (b) NOx, (c) CO, (d) O3, (e) SPM, (f) Pb Indicator A44: Emission per capita Total emissions in tonnes per capita per annum of: (a) SO2, (b) NOx, (c) CO2 Indicator A45: Acute respiratory deaths Defined as percentage of deaths due to acute respiratory disease WATER Indicator A46: Percent of DOB removed Defined as average fraction of BOD removed in major wastewater receiving bodies Indicator A47: Cost of wastewater treatment Defined as average cost in US dollars per cubic metre of water treated Indicator A48: Lowering of groundwater table Defined as the lowing of the groundwater table in cm in the past year Indicator A49: Waste water recycled Defined as percentage of waste water re-used as grey water for industrial processes or similar Indicator A50: Level of t reatment Per cent of water subject to (a) primary treatment, (b) secondary treatment, (c) tertiary treatment SOLID WASTES Indicator A51: Biodegradable waste Defined as percentage of all solid waste which is bio-degradable (composed of organic matter) Indicator A52: Recycling rate Percentage of (a) paper, (b) glass, and (c) aluminium disposed which are recycled. Indicator A53: Average cost of waste disposal Defined as cost in US dollars per tonne of solid waste disposal, for those wastes which are formally disposed through refuse collection. Indicator A54: Cost recovery Defined as percentage of costs of formal waste disposal which is recovered as charges from producers of the waste. Indicator A55: Industrial waste generation Generation per capita per annum of: (a) industrial wastes, (b) toxic wastes, (c) ratio-active wastes. RESOURCES DEPLETION Indicator A56: Energy usage per person Defined as the total energy usage per annum per person in metric tonnes of coal equivalent. Indicator A57: Fuelwood usage Defined as fuelwood usage in tonnes per person per annum Indicator A58: Renewable energy usage Defined as proportion of energy derived from renewable sources (hydro, wind, geothermal and solar electricity, combustion of animal wastes, fuelwood where this is being replaced through reforestation). Indicator A59: Food consumption Defined as daily Calorie consumption per person. DISASTER MITIGATION Indicator A60: Disaster mortality Defined as proportion of deaths during last ten years which are due to natural disasters. Indicator A61: Housing on fragile land Defined as the number of dwellings in the city which are located on land which is subject to natural disasters. Indicator A62: Fatal industrial accidents Defined as number of deaths from industrial accidents during last year. URBAN ENHANCEMENT Indicator A63: Green space Defined as percentage of green space in built up area. Indicator A64: Monument list Defined as number of buildings in city on heritage or monument lists. MODULE 5 :- LOCAL GOVERNMENT Indicator A65: Change in real per capita total revenue Average annual change in real per capital income over a three-year period. Indicator A66: Change in real per capital own-source revenues Defined as average annual change in real per-capita own-source revenues over a three-year period. LOCAL PARTICIPATION Indicator A67: Elected and nominated councillors Defined as total number of elected and of nominated local government representatives by sex, per 10000 metropolitan population, by sex. Indicator A68: Voter participation rates, by sex Defined as percentage of adult population (having reached voting age) who voted in the last municipal election. Indicator A69: Number of associations per 10000 population Defined as number of voluntary non-profit organisations, including NGOs, political sporting or social organisations, registered or with premises in the city, per 10 000 population. Indicator A70: Citizen involvement in major planning decisions Indicator A71: Decentralised district units Defined as number of separate local governments or administrative units (quarters, wards, regions or similar) which are responsible for provision of more than two local services. HOUSING INDICATORS MODULE 6 :- AFFORDABLE AND ADEQUATE HOUSING ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HOUSING Indicator HA1: Mortgage affordability Defined as proportion of households who are eligible for and can afford the maximum loan on a median priced formal sector house. Indicator HA2: Excessive housing expenditure Defined as proportion of households in the bottom 40 of incomes who are spending more than 30 of their incomes on housing. Indicator HA3: Economic share of housing Defined as the proportion of national or city product due to rent or imputed rent of dwellings. Indicator HA4: Transaction costs Defined as proportion of the value of a median-priced formal sector house which must be spent to both buy and sell the house. Indicator HA5: House price appreciation Defined as the average annual real percentage of change of house prices over a five year period. ADEQUATE HOUSING FOR ALL Indicator HA6: Overcrowding Defined as the percentage of households who are in housing deemed to have too few bedrooms for a family of that type. Indicator HA7: Households per dwelling Defined as the ratio between the total number of households and the total number of occupied dwelling units of all types in the urban area. Indicator HA8: Inadequate housing Defined as the proportion of dwellings that are deemed to be inadequate or in need of major repairs. Indicator HA9: Indoor plumbing Defined as the percentage of dwelling units which contain a complete unshared bathroom within the unit. Indicator HA10: Squatter housing Defined as the percentage of the total housing stock in the urban area which is currently occupying land illegally. Indicator HA11: Homelessness Defined as the number of people per thousand of the urban area population who sleep outside dwelling units (eg on streets, in parks, railroad stations and under bridges) or in temporary shelter in charitable institutions. Indicator HA12: Owner occupancy (by sex) Defined as the percentage of households which own the dwelling units which they occupy for (a) all households, (b) female headed households. Indicator HA13: Vacant dwellings Defined as the percentage of the total number of completed dwelling units which are presently unoccupied. RURAL HOUSING Indicator HA14: Rural waterelectricity connection Defined as the percentage of rural dwelling units with a water or electricity connection in the plot they occupy. Indicator HA15: Permanent rural housing Defined as the percentage of rural dwelling units which are likely to last twenty years or more given normal maintenance and repair, taking into account locational and environmental hazards (eg floods, typhoons, mudslides, earthquakes). Indicator HA16: Rural home ownership Defined as the percentage of rural residents who own their dwellings. Indicator HA17: Rural house price to income Defined as the ratio of the median free-market price of a rural dwelling unit and the median annual rural household income. MODULE 7 :- HOUSING PROVISION LAND Indicator HA18: Land availability Defined as the number of serviced blocks currently available divided by the present construction rate in dwellings per month (annual average). Indicator HA19: Planning permission multiplier Defined as the ratio between the median land price of an unserviced plot on the urban fringe given planning permission for residential development, and the median price of a nearby plot in ruralagricultural use without such permission. Indicator HA20: Formal land transaction Defined as the percentage of the metropolitan area covered by a land registration system which allows for buying, selling, long-term leasing, or mortgaging urban land. Indicator HA21: Development time Defined as the median length in months to get approvals, permits, and titles for a new medium-sized (50-200 unit) residential subdivision in an area at the urban fringe where residential development is permitted. Indicator HA22: Cost recovery Defined as the percentage of total infrastructure costs recovered from new developments during the year. Indicator HA23: Minimum lot size Defined as the minimum lot size for a single family housing unit in a new 50-200 unit residential subdivision. Indicator HA24: Land development controls Defined as a composite of questions on land use and building code regulations. FINANCE Indicator HA25: Credit to value ratio Defined as the ratio of new mortgage loans for housing last year to total investment in housing (in both the formal and informal sectors) last year. Indicator HA26: Housing loans Defined as the proportion of dwellings that have housing loans from the formal financial sector. Indicator HA27: Mortgage-to-prime difference Defined as the average difference in percentage points between interest rates on mortgages in both commercial and government financial institutions and the prime interest rate in the commercial banking system. Indicator HA28: Mortgage-to-deposit difference Defined as the average difference in percentage points between interest rates on mortgages in both commercial and government financial institutions and the interest rate on one-year deposits in the commercial banking system. Indicator HA29: Arrears rate Defined as the percentage of mortgage loans which are three or more months in arrears in both commercial and government financial institutions. Indicator HA30: Mortgage loans for women Defined as the percentage of mortgage loans granted to women to all mortgage loans made last year. CONSTRUCTION Indicator HA31: Construction cost Defined as the present replacement cost (labour, materials, on-site infrastructure, management and contractor profits) per square meter of a median priced dwelling unit. Indicator HA32: Construction time Defined as the average time, in months, required to construct a median housing unit. Indicator HA33: On-site productivity Defined as the man-hours per square metre on a typical median-priced dwelling in the formal construction sector. Indicator HA34: Industry concentration Defined as the percentage of new formal-sector housing units placed on the market by the five largest developers (either private or public) last year. Indicator HA35: Employment Defined as the percentage of all employment that is engaged in the construction of residential dwelling units. Indicator HA36: Wage labour Defined as proportion of on-site building employees who are employed as wage labour. TAXES AND SUBSIDIES Indicator HA37: Effective taxation rate by tenure Defined as the nett annual housing-related taxation per dwelling paid by households to governments, in US dollars, for (a) owner occupied housing, (b) private rental housing, (c) public housing. Indicator HA38: Nett housing outlays by government Defined as the total expenditure by all levels of government on housing in the current year, nett of all housing related receipts from the public, taken as a percentage of total government expenditure. Indicator HA39: Property tax rate Defined as the percentage of the market value of the median-priced dwelling unit which is collected as annual property tax. PUBLIC HOUSING Indicator HA40: Public housing stock Defined as the percentage of the total number of dwelling units in the urban area that is owned, managed and controlled by the public sector. Indicator HA41: Privatised public stock Defined as the percentage of the total number of dwelling units previously constructed or managed by the public sector hat have been privatised. Indicator HA42: Public housing production Defined as the total production of public housing units as a fraction of all formal housing units produced during the year. Indicator HA43: Social rent to income Defined as the ratio of the median annual rent of a public housing dwelling unit and the median household income of renters of public housing. Indicator HA44: Waiting time Defined as the average time on waiting lists before allocation of public housing units. Indicator HA45: Operating subsidies Defined as the ratio of rent payments to operations costs for public housing. Indicator HA46: Administrative costs Defined as the administrative cost of operating public housing taken as a fraction of the estimated market rental value of the dwellings. Indicator HA47: Tenant management Defined as proportion of social housing stock managed by tenants, completely, partly or jointly. Copyright 1995-2002 by: ESS Environmental Software and Services GmbH AUSTRIA
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