Sistem perdagangan topan

Sistem perdagangan topan

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Sebuah siklon tropis terjadi di Pasifik barat atau Samudera Hindia. Perubahan (dipengaruhi oleh istilah China untuk topan, mungkin bahasa Kanton toi 2 fung 1. topan, dan istilah kerabat) tuffon Inggris sebelumnya, tufan. Banjir. Dari bahasa Hindi dan bahasa Urdu tx16bfx101n. Badai angin dan hujan, banjir. Dari bahasa Arab x1e6dx16bfx101n Banjir. Dari bahasa Yunani tuphx14dn. Typhon, angin puyuh. 1. (Geografi Fisik) badai tropis atau badai topan, khususnya di lautan Cina dan W Pacific 2. (Geografi Fisik) badai dahsyat di India C16: dari angin tai tai Cina yang besar, dari angin tai besar yang dipengaruhi oleh tuphn Yunani Angin puyuh ty8226phoon 1. topan tropis atau topan di wilayah Pasifik W dan laut China. 2. badai dahsyat atau badai India. 169082111700 lt dial. Cina (Guangdong) daaih-fng (mirip dengan angin dengung Cina df275ng), diubah oleh hubungan dengan angin kencang Yunani t563phn Angin topan yang terjadi di Samudra Pasifik barat. Lihat Catatan pada siklon. Sebuah topan atau badai di Samudra Pasifik bagian barat. Topan yang intens di Laut Cina dimana kecepatan angin spiral mencapai lebih dari 100 mil (160km) per jam. Thesaurus Antonyms Related Words Sinonim Legenda: badai laut yang terjadi di Timur. Mereka terperangkap dalam topan di laut China. Tifo tufo furao tajfun der Taifun tyfon tiffon taifuun taifuuni typhi tajfun, orkan tjfun topan fellibylur tifone taifnas taifns taufan tyfoon virvelstorm. Tyfon tajfun tufao taifun tajfun tajfun tyfon tayfun. Referensi dalam literatur klasik Saya melihat dinding senjata yang memuakkan sekarang saya melihat bahwa tuan rumah yang maju seperti yang saya lihat saat itu, saya melihat kebencian di mata kejam itu saya ingat bagaimana saya mencungkil kepala saya di payudara saya. , Saya merasakan lagi guncangan gempa yang tiba-tiba terjadi di belakang saya, yang dikelola oleh ramuan yang saya sembuhkan untuk menyelamatkan saya sekali lagi mendengar tulah tulah yang meledak dari kolom penyerangan saat saya mencengkeramnya dari van ke belakang seperti tembakan Sepoi dari Pistol Rodman Senang dengan topan dari selatan, karena akan membawa kita maju. Dia berlari keluar untuk mengangkat topan dari rumah masak, dan hampir pada bayangannya bergulir di Babu, merengkuh bahu seperti seorang kaisar Romawi, berkelap-kelip seperti Titus, berkepala telanjang, dengan sepatu hak paten baru, yang paling tinggi Kondisi lemak, memancarkan sukacita dan salam. Namun dia adalah seorang pria yang menghadapi badai dan topan yang tak gentar. Dan tidak akan ragu untuk melawan selusin negro tak bersenjata dengan apa-apa selain pistol untuk membantunya. Mereka adalah nelayan yang damai, jelas mereka, yang prahusnya telah hancur dalam topan baru-baru ini. Ada rumor bahwa mereka pergi ke Laut Selatan - tersesat di sekunar perdagangan saat topan. atau semacam itu. Merry Mist adalah nama sekunar saya, dan saya pikir dia kokoh dibangun sampai dia menabrak topan itu. Seorang biadab, berkeliaran di suatu tempat di luar batas cakrawala, mungkin percaya bahwa beberapa kawah baru terbentuk di dada Florida, meski tidak ada letusan, juga angin topan. Atau badai, atau perjuangan unsur-unsur, atau fenomena mengerikan apa pun yang mampu diproduksi oleh alam. Gales yang kami temui berulang kali, karena ini adalah wilayah yang mentah dan penuh badai, dan, di pertengahan bulan Juni, sebuah topan yang paling berkesan bagi saya dan yang terpenting karena perubahan yang terjadi melalui masa depan saya. Saya mungkin berusaha untuk menyatakan hal yang sama dari setiap aspek ceritanya, sementara saya akui bahwa topan khusus dari cerita ini bukanlah topan dari pengalaman saya yang sebenarnya. Terang lama dan bernoda cuaca di topan dan hujan di keempat samudra, kerudung lamanya berkulit gelap seperti grenadier Prancis, yang telah bertempur di Mesir dan Siberia. Biarkan pemilik berdiri di pantai Nantucket dan mengungguli Topan .Tamarack Aerospace menerima Sertifikat Jenis Tambahan untuk sistem Winglet Aktif Tamarack Aerospace Group telah menerima Sertifikat Tipe Tambahan Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) untuk sistem Active Winglet untuk bisnis Cessna CJ. jet. Sebelum ini, perusahaan memperoleh pengesahan European Aviation Safety Administration (EASA) STC pada tanggal 23 Desember 2015. Tamarack sekarang akan menginstal Winglets Aktifnya di jet Cessna CJ, CJ1, CJ1 amp M2 di AS dan Eropa. Pentingnya persetujuan FAA tidak dapat diabaikan. Pelanggan akan mendapatkan 25 penghematan bahan bakar untuk CJ amp CJ1 dan 13 untuk jet M2 ampli CJ1. CEO Tamarac Aerospace Group Nick Guida mengatakan: ldquo Pentingnya persetujuan FAA tidak dapat diabaikan. Kami memiliki daftar pesanan yang panjang dan pelanggan kami secara aktif bekerja sama dengan mitra kami, Cessna, untuk menjadwalkan pemasangan. Dengan STC di belakang kami, kami mengharapkan sejumlah besar pesanan baru dari pelanggan yang telah menunggu sertifikasi. Sistem Tamarackrsquos Active Winglet yang canggih terdiri dari perpanjangan sayap sayap, teknologi pelacak sayap dan pengurang beban. Teknologi ini bekerja dengan menangkal dan mengurangi beban hembusan dan beban manuver tanpa penguatan struktur sayap. Dengan kombinasi sayap sayap dan ujung sayap, rasio aspek wingrsquos akan meningkat, sehingga terjadi peningkatan kinerja dan penghematan bahan bakar. Perpanjangan umur kelelahan dan kenaikan berat badan bruto juga dimungkinkan dengan teknologi Tamarackrsquos Active Winglet, yang terukur dan dapat dipasang pada jenis pesawat terbang manapun. Gambar: Sistem Winglet Aktif Tamarackrsquos terdiri dari ekstensi ujung sayap, teknologi pelacak sayap dan pengurang beban. Foto: courtesy of Tamarack Aerospace Group.Have Anda pernah bertanya-tanya apa itu baghouse atau apa singkatan NMOG Itu penyetrikaan dingin bukanlah cara baru untuk mendapatkan keriput dari kemeja atau bahwa SIP bukanlah minuman rasa Anda-tes tidak sendirian. ARB telah memperbarui glossary istilah polusi udara dan daftar akronim untuk membantu. Ingatlah bahwa kita tidak berusaha membuat daftar yang lengkap, juga tidak memberi istilah hukum. Glosarium ini hanyalah sumber untuk masyarakat umum. Bagian hukum negara bagian California (Bagian Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja 39650 et seq.) Yang mulai berlaku efektif pada bulan Januari 1984 dan menetapkan kerangka untuk identifikasi dan pengendalian kontaminan udara Californias yang beracun. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, silakan lihat ringkasan racun kami. Assembly Bill 998 mendirikan Program Insentif Dry Dry Non-Toxic untuk menyediakan industri dry cleaning dengan 10.000 dana hibah untuk beralih dari sistem yang menggunakan perchlorethylene (Perc), kontaminan udara beracun yang teridentifikasi dan karsinogen potensial manusia, ke yang tidak beracun dan tidak berombak Membentuk alternatif. Undang-undang tersebut juga mewajibkan ARB untuk membuat program demonstrasi untuk menampilkan teknologi pembentukan yang tidak beracun dan non-asap ini. Sebuah program California (Kode Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Bagian 44300 et seq.) Yang memerlukan sumber stasioner tertentu untuk melaporkan jenis dan jumlah zat beracun tertentu yang secara rutin dilepaskan ke udara. Program ini mengidentifikasi fasilitas prioritas tinggi dan memerlukan fasilitas yang memiliki risiko signifikan untuk memberitahu semua individu yang terpapar. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web AB 2588 kami. Sebuah program yang mengizinkan pemerintah daerah dan pemerintah daerah mengalokasikan biaya tambahan pendaftaran kendaraan ke proyek-proyek yang mengurangi emisi kendaraan bermotor seperti kendaraan tanpa emisi. Jalur sepeda dan program pengurangan perjalanan. Legislatif berlalu dan Gubernur Schwarzenegger menandatangani AB 32, yang menetapkan tujuan pengurangan emisi gas rumah kaca 2020 menjadi undang-undang. Ini mengarahkan ARB untuk mengembangkan tindakan awal yang diskrit untuk mengurangi gas rumah kaca sambil juga menyiapkan rencana pelingkupan untuk mengidentifikasi cara terbaik untuk mencapai batas 2020 pada emisi gas rumah kaca. Pengurangan atau penghapusan polusi. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) Jumlah harian tertinggi dari suatu zat yang dapat dikonsumsi selama seumur hidup tanpa efek samping. Istilah yang komprehensif untuk berbagai cara senyawa asam mengendap dari atmosfer dan menyimpannya ke permukaan. Ini bisa meliputi: 1) pengendapan basah dengan hujan asam, kabut dan salju, dan 2) pengendapan kering partikel asam (aerosol). Hujan yang sangat asam (pH kurang dari 5.2). Komponen utama hujan asam biasanya meliputi asam nitrat dan sulfat. Ini dapat terbentuk dengan kombinasi nitrogen dan sulfur oksida dengan uap air di atmosfer. ARB menggunakan banyak akronim dan kami berharap daftar akronim ini akan membantu pengguna dari situs ini. Ekspedisi Akut Satu atau rangkaian eksposur jangka pendek yang umumnya berlangsung kurang dari 24 jam. Efek kesehatan yang terjadi dalam waktu yang relatif singkat (misalnya menit atau jam). Istilah ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan eksposur dan efek singkat yang muncul segera setelah terpapar. Add-On Control Device Alat pengendali polusi udara seperti penyerap karbon atau insinerator yang mengurangi polusi pada gas buang. Perangkat kontrol biasanya tidak mempengaruhi proses yang dikontrol dan dengan demikian teknologi add-on, berlawanan dengan skema untuk mengendalikan polusi melalui mengubah proses dasarnya sendiri. Lihat juga pencegahan polusi. Alat pengontrol emisi yang menghilangkan VOC dari aliran gas sebagai hasil pelepasan gas (adsorpsi) ke matriks padat seperti karbon aktif. Teknologi Partial Zero Emission Vehicle Tingkat Lanjut (AT PZEV) Kendaraan yang memenuhi standar Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) dan mencakup teknologi pengaktifan emisi nol. Efek kesehatan akibat paparan terhadap kontaminan udara yang berkisar dari kondisi sementara yang relatif ringan, seperti iritasi mata atau tenggorokan, sesak napas, atau sakit kepala, hingga kondisi permanen dan serius, seperti cacat lahir, kanker atau kerusakan paru-paru, saraf, Hati, jantung, atau organ lainnya. Partikel zat padat atau cairan yang dapat tetap tersuspensi di udara dari beberapa menit sampai berbulan-bulan tergantung pada ukuran dan berat partikel. AFIP (Program Insentif Bahan Bakar Alternatif) Sesuai dengan RUU Perakitan 1811, ARB dengan Komisi Energi California, mengembangkan rencana bersama untuk menghabiskan 25 juta untuk tujuan memberi insentif biofuel dan efisiensi tinggi, teknologi pemancar rendah. Dana tersebut untuk mengembangkan langkah-langkah spesifik untuk mengurangi polusi udara dan emisi gas rumah kaca dari bahan bakar dan sumber mobile. AB 1811 mewajibkan dana tersebut dibebani pada tanggal 30 Juni 2007, dan dikeluarkan pada tanggal 30 Juni 2009. Penghijauan Penanaman hutan baru di lahan dimana vegetasi atau lahan sebelumnya tidak mengandung hutan. Afterburner Perangkat pengurangan polusi udara yang menghilangkan gas organik yang tidak diinginkan melalui insinerasi. Pembakaran Pertanian Penggunaan api yang disengaja untuk pengelolaan vegetasi di berbagai bidang seperti ladang pertanian, kebun buah, rangelands dan hutan. Peraturan tersebut dijelaskan dalam Agricultural Burning Guidelines, Title 17, California Code of Regulations. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat situs web program manajemen asap kami. Yang disebut udara murni adalah campuran gas yang mengandung sekitar 78 persen nitrogen 21 persen oksigen kurang dari 1 persen karbon dioksida. Argon dan gas lainnya dan, jumlah uap air yang bervariasi. Lihat juga udara sekitar. Luas lahan dengan kondisi meteorologi dan geografis yang hampir sama. Sejauh mungkin, batasan batas udara didefinisikan sepanjang garis batas politik dan mencakup area sumber dan reseptor. California saat ini terbagi menjadi 15 cekungan udara. Pengukuran Pengendalian Beracun Airborne (ATCM) Tindakan pengendalian yang diadopsi oleh ARB (Kode Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Seksi 39666 et seq.), Yang mengurangi emisi kontaminan udara beracun. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat halaman web ATCM kami. Badan politik bertanggung jawab untuk mengelola kualitas udara secara regional atau regional. California saat ini terbagi menjadi 35 distrik udara. (Lihat juga pusat pengendalian polusi udara dan manajemen mutu udara kabupaten). Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat direktori distrik udara lokal kami. Pemantauan Udara Sampling untuk dan pengukuran polutan hadir di atmosfer. Jumlah zat asing andor alami yang terjadi di atmosfer yang dapat menyebabkan efek buruk pada manusia, hewan, tumbuhan dan bahan. (Lihat juga polusi udara.) Degradasi kualitas udara akibat bahan kimia atau bahan lain yang tidak diinginkan yang terjadi di udara. (Lihat juga polutan udara). Sebuah badan county yang memiliki wewenang untuk mengatur sumber polusi udara tidak bergerak, tidak langsung dan area (misalnya pembangkit listrik, pembangunan jalan raya dan pembangunan perumahan) di dalam sebuah county dan diatur oleh dewan kontrol polusi udara distrik yang terdiri dari Supervisor county terpilih (Lihat juga manajemen kualitas udara kabupaten atau daerah pengendalian pencemaran udara). Indeks Kualitas Udara (AQI) Indeks numerik yang digunakan untuk melaporkan tingkat keparahan tingkat polusi udara kepada masyarakat. Ini menggantikan Indeks Standar Polutan yang sebelumnya digunakan (PSI). Seperti halnya PSI, AQI memasukkan lima kriteria polutan - ozon, partikulat, karbon monoksida, sulfur dioksida dan nitrogen dioksida - ke dalam satu indeks tunggal. Indeks baru ini juga mencakup standar ozon 8 jam dan standar 24 jam PM2.5 ke dalam perhitungan indeks. Tingkat AQI berkisar dari 0 (kualitas udara bagus) sampai 500 (kualitas udara berbahaya). Semakin tinggi indeks, semakin tinggi tingkat polutan dan semakin besar kemungkinan efek kesehatan. AQI memasukkan kategori indeks tambahan - tidak sehat untuk kelompok sensitif - yang berkisar antara 101 sampai 150. Sebagai tambahan, AQI hadir dengan peringatan lebih rinci. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat halaman indeks kualitas udara kami. Sekelompok kabupaten atau wilayah, atau daerah perorangan yang ditentukan dalam undang-undang yang memiliki wewenang untuk mengatur sumber polusi udara tidak bergerak, tidak langsung dan area di wilayah ini dan diatur oleh dewan pengawas polusi udara regional yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pejabat terpilih dari dalam wilayah . (Lihat juga daerah pengendalian pencemaran udara). Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, silakan lihat direktori distrik udara lokal kami. Rencana yang disusun oleh APCDAQMD, untuk daerah atau wilayah yang ditetapkan sebagai area non-pencapaian. Untuk tujuan membawa daerah tersebut sesuai dengan persyaratan standar kualitas udara oror nasional dan ororo California. AQMP dimasukkan ke dalam Rencana Pelaksanaan Negara (SIP). Seorang individu dipekerjakan oleh pemerintah lokal, negara bagian, atau federal untuk mengelola kualitas udara. Hubungan matematis antara emisi dan kualitas udara yang mensimulasikan pada komputer pengangkutan, penyebaran dan transformasi senyawa yang dipancarkan ke udara. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, silakan lihat halaman web perangkat lunak kami. Standar Mutu Udara (AQS) Tingkat polutan yang ditentukan di udara luar yang seharusnya tidak dilampaui selama jangka waktu tertentu untuk melindungi kesehatan masyarakat. Didirikan oleh pemerintah federal dan negara bagian. (Lihat juga standar kualitas udara ambien.) Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, silakan lihat standar kualitas udara ambien kami. Kelompok Kerja Kualitas Udara (AQWG) Kelompok penasehat yang menyediakan forum untuk komunikasi, kerjasama dan koordinasi dalam pengembangan dan pelaksanaan tindakan pengendalian kualitas udara. Mereka mungkin terdiri dari perwakilan dari ARB, kelompok warga negara, kelompok lingkungan, industri, distrik udara lokal dan EPA A.S. Sebuah subset dari baskom udara. Istilah tersebut menunjukkan wilayah geografis yang memiliki udara yang sama karena topografi, meteorologi dan iklim. Toksik Udara Istilah generik yang mengacu pada bahan kimia atau kelompok kimia berbahaya di udara. Zat yang sangat berbahaya bagi kesehatan, seperti yang dianggap sebagai program pencemar udara berbahaya A.S. EPA atau Californias AB 1807 dan atau program AB udara toksik AB 2588, dianggap sebagai toksik udara. Secara teknis, senyawa apa saja yang ada di udara dan berpotensi menghasilkan efek kesehatan yang merugikan adalah beracun udara. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web racun kami. Tunjangan Otorisasi untuk dipancarkan, selama tahun tertentu, setara dengan satu ton karbon dioksida. Bahan bakar seperti metanol, etanol, gas alam dan gas perminyakan cair yang terbakar bersih dan membantu memenuhi standar emisi mobile dan stasioner ARB. Bahan bakar ini dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bahan bakar kurang bersih untuk menyalakan kendaraan bermotor. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs bahan bakar alternatif kami. Udara terjadi pada waktu dan tempat tertentu di luar struktur. Sering digunakan secara bergantian dengan udara terbuka. (Lihat juga udara.) Standar berbasis kesehatan dan kesejahteraan untuk udara terbuka yang mengidentifikasi konsentrasi polutan udara rata-rata yang dapat diterima maksimum selama jangka waktu tertentu. (Lihat juga CAAQS dan NAAQS dan Kriteria Polutan Udara.) Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web standar kualitas udara ambien kami. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang menyediakan forum untuk produsen, konsumen dan perwakilan pemerintah dan industri untuk menulis standar uji laboratorium untuk bahan, produk, sistem dan layanan. ASTM menerbitkan metode uji standar, spesifikasi, praktik, panduan, klasifikasi dan terminologi. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs ASTM kami. Amonia (NH3) Senyawa gas tak berwarna yang tidak berwarna dari nitrogen dan hidrogen yang sangat larut dalam air dan dapat dengan mudah terkondensasi menjadi cairan oleh dingin dan tekanan. Amonia bereaksi dengan NOx untuk membentuk amonium nitrat - komponen PM2.5 utama di Amerika Serikat bagian barat. Pencernaan Anaerobik Proses biokimia di mana bakteri memecah bahan organik biodegradable, seperti pupuk kandang, di lingkungan bebas oksigen. Suhu, kelembaban, kandungan hara dan pH, dapat dikontrol melalui penggunaan ruang kedap udara (digester). Pecahnya hasil bahan organik dalam biogas, campuran metana (CH4), karbon dioksida (CO 2) dan jumlah jejak gas lainnya. Sumber-sumber yang digunakan untuk memperkirakan emisi. Ini bisa mencakup area-wide, mobile dan sumber alami dan juga kelompok sumber stasioner (seperti dry cleaners dan pompa bensin). California Clean Air Act mengharuskan distrik udara memasukkan sumber daerah dalam pengembangan dan implementasi AQMP. Dalam persediaan emisi California semua sumber yang tidak dilaporkan sebagai sumber titik individual disertakan sebagai sumber wilayah. Program racun udara federal mendefinisikan sumber yang memancarkan kurang dari 10 ton per tahun polutan udara berbahaya tunggal (HAP) atau 25 ton per tahun dari semua HAP sebagai sumber wilayah. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs metodologi sumber luas kami. Sumber pencemaran dimana emisi tersebar di wilayah yang luas, seperti produk konsumen, perapian, debu jalan dan operasi pertanian. Sumber di wilayah tidak menyertakan sumber mobile atau sumber stasioner. Sejenis hidrokarbon Seperti benzena atau toluena. Beberapa aromatik beracun. Serat mineral yang bisa mencemari udara atau air dan menyebabkan kanker atau asbestosis saat dihirup. EPA A.S. telah melarang atau sangat membatasi penggunaannya di bidang manufaktur dan konstruksi dan ARB telah memberlakukan batasan jumlah asbes di batuan serpentin yang digunakan untuk aplikasi permukaan. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi website kami. Gangguan inflamasi kronis pada paru-paru ditandai dengan mengi, sesak napas, sesak dada dan batuk. Massa gas atau amplop udara yang mengelilingi Bumi. Dari permukaan tanah ke atas, atmosfer terbagi lagi ke dalam troposfer. Stratosfer, mesosfer dan termosfer. Sebuah wilayah geografis yang diidentifikasi memiliki kualitas udara sebagus, atau lebih baik dari standar kualitas udara ambien nasional dan oror California (NAAQS CAAQS). Area bisa menjadi area pencapaian satu polutan dan area non-penahanan bagi orang lain. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web sebutan daerah kami. Otoritas untuk Membangun (AC) Izin pra-konstruksi yang dikeluarkan oleh sebuah distrik udara. Alat pengontrol polusi udara yang menjebak partikulat dengan cara memaksa aliran gas melalui kantong permeabel besar biasanya terbuat dari serat kaca. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs pelatihan baghouse kami. Ketentuan peraturan perizinan di udara yang memungkinkan fasilitas untuk mengumpulkan kredit untuk mengurangi emisi melebihi batas peraturan (kredit pengurangan emisi) dan kemudian menggunakan atau menjual kredit tersebut di kemudian hari. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web Review Sumber Baru kami. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) Kendaraan yang beroperasi dengan listrik yang tersimpan dalam baterai dan memiliki motor listrik daripada mesin pembakaran dalam. Kendaraan ini juga memenuhi persyaratan Peraturan Kendaraan Zero Emission. Ukuran Pengendalian Terbaik yang Tersedia (BACM) Suatu istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan ukuran terbaik (sesuai pedoman A.S. EPA) untuk mengendalikan sumber partikel dan sumber emisi kecil atau terdispersi dari sumber seperti debu jalan raya, tungku kayu dan pembakaran terbuka. Metode, sistem, teknik dan proses produksi terkini yang tersedia untuk mencapai pengurangan emisi layak terbaik untuk polutan dan proses udara yang diatur. BACT adalah persyaratan NSR (New Source Review) dan PSD (Prevention of Significant Deterioration). Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web BACT kami. Teknologi Pengendalian Retrofit Terbaik yang Tersedia (BARCT) Keterbatasan emisi udara yang berlaku untuk sumber yang ada dan didasarkan pada tingkat pengurangan maksimum yang dapat dicapai, dengan mempertimbangkan dampak lingkungan, energi dan ekonomi oleh masing-masing kelas atau kategori sumber. (Lihat juga Teknologi Kontrol Terbaik yang Tersedia.) Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web BARCT kami. Sumber Biogenik Sumber biologis seperti tumbuhan dan hewan yang mengeluarkan polutan udara seperti senyawa organik yang mudah menguap. Contoh sumber biogenik meliputi operasi pengelolaan hewan dan hutan pohon ek dan pinus. (Lihat juga sumber-sumber alam.) Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web Dampak Ekosistem kami. Bulk Plant Sebuah fasilitas distribusi bensin perantara dimana pengiriman bensin ke dan dari fasilitas tersebut semata-mata dengan truk. Sebuah agen dari Departemen Urusan Konsumen California yang mengelola pelaksanaan Program Inspeksi dan Pemeliharaan Kendaraan Bermotor. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs Smog Check kami. Sehari yang tidak ditentukan secara resmi oleh ahli meteorologi dan manajer kualitas udara menjadi hari yang tidak bakar. Hari bakar bervariasi menurut baskom udara pada hari tertentu. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web program manajemen asap kami. Asosiasi Petugas Pengendalian Polusi Udara California (CAPCOA) Asosiasi nirlaba dari petugas pengawas polusi udara dari semua 35 lembaga kualitas udara di seluruh California. CAPCOA dibentuk pada tahun 1975 untuk mempromosikan udara bersih dan untuk menyediakan forum untuk berbagi pengetahuan, pengalaman dan informasi di antara badan pengatur mutu udara di seluruh negara bagian. CAPCOA adalah organisasi profesional kualitas udara - pemimpin di bidangnya - yang mempromosikan persatuan dan efisiensi dan berusaha untuk mendorong konsistensi dalam metode dan praktik pengendalian pencemaran udara. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs CAPCOAs kami. Negara bagian memimpin badan kualitas udara yang terdiri dari 11 anggota dewan yang ditunjuk oleh Gubernur, dan lebih dari seribu pegawai. ARB bertanggung jawab atas pencapaian dan pemeliharaan standar kualitas udara negara bagian dan federal. Program perubahan iklim California, dan bertanggung jawab penuh atas pengendalian pencemaran kendaraan bermotor. Ini mengawasi program pengelolaan polusi udara kabupaten dan regional. Batas hukum yang menentukan tingkat maksimum dan waktu pemaparan di udara terbuka untuk polutan udara yang diberikan dan yang melindungi kesehatan manusia dan kesejahteraan masyarakat. CAAQS direkomendasikan oleh OEHHA dan diadopsi menjadi peraturan oleh ARB. CAAQS adalah standar yang harus dipenuhi sesuai persyaratan California Clean Air Act (CCAA). Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs AAQS kami. Undang-undang California yang disahkan pada tahun 1988 yang menjadi dasar perencanaan dan regulasi kualitas udara tidak tergantung pada peraturan federal. Unsur utama dari Undang-undang tersebut adalah persyaratan bahwa distrik udara lokal yang melanggar CAAQS harus menyiapkan rencana pencapaian yang mengidentifikasi masalah kualitas, penyebab, tren, dan tindakan kualitas yang harus diambil untuk mencapai dan mempertahankan standar kualitas udara Californias pada tanggal paling awal yang dapat dilakukan. California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) Sebuah lembaga pemerintah negara bagian yang didirikan pada tahun 1991 untuk menyatukan kegiatan lingkungan yang berkaitan dengan perlindungan kesehatan masyarakat di Negara Bagian California. Ada lima dewan, departemen dan kantor di bawah organisasi CalEPA termasuk California Air Resources Board (ARB). Badan Pengendalian Sumber Daya Air Negara (SWRCB) dan sembilan Dewan Pengawas Mutu Air Daerah (RWQCB), Departemen Regulasi Pestisida, Departemen Pengawasan Bahan Beracun (DTSC) dan Kantor Penilaian Kesehatan Lingkungan (OEHHA). Papan, departemen, dan kantor CalEPA secara langsung bertanggung jawab untuk menerapkan undang-undang lingkungan California, atau memainkan peran kooperatif dengan badan pengatur lainnya di tingkat regional, lokal, negara bagian dan federal. Untuk daftar lengkap organisasi CalEPA, lihat halaman muka CalEPAs. Undang-undang California yang menetapkan sebuah proses bagi badan publik untuk membuat keputusan berdasarkan keputusan proyek tanpa pamrih. Proses ini membantu pengambil keputusan untuk menentukan apakah dampak lingkungan terkait dengan proyek yang diusulkan. Hal ini membutuhkan dampak lingkungan yang terkait dengan proyek yang diusulkan untuk dieliminasi atau dikurangi dan bahwa tindakan mitigasi kualitas udara diterapkan. California Hydrogen Highway Network (CaH 2 Net) Inisiatif untuk menambahkan infrastruktur pengisian bahan bakar hidrogen di California untuk memenuhi permintaan kendaraan hidrogen yang ditempatkan di negara bagian tersebut. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi situs web California Hydrogen Highway Network. Bensin Reformulasi Tahap 2 dari California (CaRFG Phase 2 atau CaRFG2) Bensin yang dijual, ditujukan untuk dijual, atau dijual sebagai bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor di California sesuai dengan standar bensin revisi Tahap 2 California. Pelajari lebih lanjut di situs web bahan bakar. Bensin Reformulasi California Tahap 3 (CaRFG Tahap 3 atau CaRFG3) Bensin yang dijual, ditujukan untuk dijual, atau dijual untuk dijual sebagai bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor di California sesuai dengan standar bensin revisi Ontario Tahap 3. Pelajari lebih lanjut di situs web bahan bakar. California Solar Initiative (CSI) Program utilitas milik investor California Public Utilities yang dimulai pada tanggal 1 Januari 2007, untuk memberikan insentif untuk menginstal proyek pembangkit tenaga surya. Sekelompok penyakit yang ditandai dengan pertumbuhan sel tubuh invasif yang tidak terkontrol yang mengarah pada pembentukan tumor ganas yang cenderung tumbuh dengan cepat dan menyebar (yaitu bermetastasis). Batas yang dapat diberlakukan untuk total emisi untuk fasilitas yang tercakup dalam program cap-and-trade. Tutupan ditetapkan untuk setiap periode kepatuhan program oleh negara dan emisi dikurangi saat tutupnya menurun seiring berjalannya waktu. Cap-and-trade adalah pendekatan peraturan yang digunakan untuk mengendalikan polusi dengan menetapkan tutupan perusahaan pada emisi yang diizinkan saat menggunakan mekanisme pasar untuk mencapai pengurangan emisi sambil menekan biaya. Dalam program cap-and-trade, batas, atau cap diletakkan pada jumlah gas rumah kaca yang bisa dipancarkan. Bensin CARB, Bensin Resmi Bensin Bensin (CaRFG) Bensin yang dijual, ditujukan untuk dijual, atau dijual sebagai bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor di California sesuai dengan standar bensin yang diformulasikan di California. Pelajari lebih lanjut di situs web bahan bakar. CARBOB (formula blendstock campuran yang dioksidasi oleh California untuk campuran oksigen) Cairan turunan minyak bumi yang dimaksudkan sebagai produk yang akan menjadi reformis bensin California dengan penambahan oksigenat, seperti etanol. Pelajari lebih lanjut di situs web bahan bakar. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Proses menangkap CO2 dari sumber stasioner, diikuti dengan mengompres, mengangkut dan menyuntikkannya ke dalam formasi geologi yang sesuai dimana akan diasingkan. Karbon Dioksida (CO 2) Gas tanpa bau dan tidak berbau yang terjadi secara alami di atmosfer Bumi. Jumlah yang signifikan juga dipancarkan ke udara oleh pembakaran bahan bakar fosil. Kadar Karbon Dioksida Setara (CO 2 E) Jumlah karbon dioksida yang menghasilkan dampak pemanasan global yang sama dengan bobot gas rumah kaca lain, berdasarkan sains terbaik yang ada, Termasuk dari Panel Antarpemerintah tentang Perubahan Iklim. Gas tanpa bau dan tak berbau yang dihasilkan dari pembakaran bahan bakar hidrokarbon yang tidak sempurna. CO mengganggu kemampuan darah untuk membawa oksigen ke jaringan bodys dan menghasilkan banyak efek kesehatan yang merugikan. Lebih dari 80 persen CO yang dipancarkan di daerah perkotaan dikontribusikan oleh kendaraan bermotor. CO adalah kriteria polutan udara. Proses penghilangan karbon dioksida (CO 2) dari atmosfer dengan menyimpannya di reservoir karbon selain atmosfer. Sequestration meningkatkan penyimpanan karbon di pohon dan tanah, melindungi karbon pohon dan tanah yang ada dan mengurangi emisi CO 2. Metana (CH 4) dan nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Karsinogen Suatu zat penyebab kanker. (Lihat juga kanker.) Carl Moyer Fund Program hibah insentif multi-juta dolar yang dirancang untuk mendorong pengurangan emisi dari mesin heavy-duty. Hibah tersebut mencakup biaya tambahan untuk teknologi bersih untuk mesin truk on-road, off-road, marine, lokomotif dan pertanian, serta forklift dan peralatan pendukung bandara. Kunjungi situs Carl Moyer Program kami. Nomor Registry CAS Nomor Register Layanan Abstrak Kimia (CAS) adalah sebutan numerik yang diberikan oleh American Chemical Societys Chemical Abstract Service dan secara unik mengidentifikasi senyawa tertentu. Entri ini memungkinkan seseorang untuk secara meyakinkan mengidentifikasi materi tanpa memandang nama atau sistem penamaan yang digunakan. Zat yang dapat meningkatkan atau menurunkan laju reaksi kimia antara spesies kimia lain tanpa dikonsumsi dalam proses. Catalytic Converter Alat pengendali polusi kendaraan bermotor yang dirancang untuk mengurangi emisi seperti oksida nitrogen. Hidrokarbon dan karbon monoksida. Konverter Catalytic telah mewajibkan peralatan pada semua kendaraan bermotor baru yang dijual di California sejak tahun 1979. Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) CEM melibatkan penentuan kepatuhan sumber stasioner dengan keterbatasan emisi secara terus menerus dengan memasang sistem agar beroperasi terus menerus di dalam cerobong asap atau Sumber emisi lainnya CEM juga digunakan untuk pengendalian proses dan untuk memantau operasi peralatan kontrol. Bersertifikat, Sertifikasi Proses formal di mana produsen kendaraan, produk, atau proses menunjukkan kepatuhan terhadap semua peraturan yang berlaku dan diberi izin untuk memasarkan, menjual, atau mengirimkan barangnya di California. Sertifikasi di California biasanya ditunjukkan dengan pemberian Executive Order (EO). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Ada sejumlah zat yang terdiri dari klorin, fluorin dan karbon. CFC digunakan untuk pendinginan, kemasan busa, pelarut dan propelan. Paparan kronis Paparan jangka panjang, biasanya berlangsung satu tahun sampai seumur hidup. Chronic Health Effect A health effect that occurs over a relatively long period of time (e.g. months or years). (See also acute health effect .) Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) CVRP is intended to encourage and accelerate zero-emission vehicle deployment and technology innovation by providing grants to eligible vehicles. For more details see the ARB website. Gasoline fuel that results in reduced emissions of carbon monoxide. nitrogen oxides. reactive organic gases and particulate matter, in addition to toxic substances such as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Visit our cleaner-burning gasoline website or an overview of ARBs fuels program . Climate Action Team (CAT) The Secretary of CalEPA leads the Climate Action Team made up of representatives from state agencies, boards and departments. The CAT members work to coordinate statewide efforts to implement global warming emission reduction programs and the states Climate Adaptation Strategy. The CAT is also responsible for reporting on the progress made toward meeting the statewide greenhouse gas targets that were established by Executive Order S-3-05 and further defined under AB 32 . Climate Change A layer of any substance such as paint, lacquer, or varnish applied over a surface for protection. For more information, visit our coatings website . Coefficient of Haze (COH) A measurement of the quantity of dust and smoke in the atmosphere in a theoretical 1,000 linear feet of air. A COH of less than three is considered clean air and more than five is of some concern. COH readings of 20 or more can occur in urban areas. Cold Ironing or Shore power refers to providing electrical power to a vessel that is docked. The purpose of shore power is to allow the vessel operator to turn off the vessels auxiliary engines, which would normally be providing the necessary electricity. Although there are emissions associated with the generation of electricity used for shore power, those emissions are much less than those from the auxiliary engines, which burn diesel fuel. An approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. CHP application involves the recovery of otherwise wasted thermal energy to produce additional power or useful thermal energy. The act or instance of burning some type of fuel, such as gasoline, to produce energy. Combustion is typically the process that powers automobile engines and power plant generators. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Conformity A demonstration of whether a federally-supported activity is consistent with the State Implementation Plan (SIP) -- per Section 176 (c) of the Clean Air Act. Transportation conformity refers to plans, programs and projects approved or funded by the Federal Highway Administration or the Federal Transit Administration. General conformity refers to projects approved or funded by other federal agencies. Congestion Management Program A state-mandated program (California Government Code Section 65089a) that requires each county to prepare a plan to relieve congestion and reduce air pollution. Consumer Products Products such as hairspray, detergents, cleaning compounds, polishes, lawn and garden products, personal care products and automotive specialty products that are part of our everyday lives and, through consumer use, may produce volatile organic air emissions which contribute to air pollution. Visit our consumer products website. An air analyzer that measures air quality components continuously. (See also Integrated Sampling Device .) Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) Guidance documents issued by U.S. EPA that define reasonably available control technology (RACT) to be applied to existing facilities that emit excessive quantities of air pollutants they contain information both on the economic and technological feasibility of available techniques. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) COPD is a lung disease characterized by chronic obstruction of airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is generally progressive, but may be partially reversible. The more familiar terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema are included within the COPD diagnosis. COPD is strongly associated with tobacco smoking but can occur in non-smokers as well and is a serious, life-threatening lung disease. Cost-Effectiveness The cost of an emission control measure assessed in terms of dollars-per-pound, or dollars-per-ton, of air emissions reduced. An air pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure can be determined and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set. Examples include: ozone. carbon monoxide. nitrogen dioxide. sulfur dioxide. PM10 and PM2.5. The term criteria air pollutants derives from the requirement that the U.S. EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants. The U.S. EPA and ARB periodically review new scientific data and may propose revisions to the standards as a result. View our health and air pollution website. An air pollution control device that removes larger particles -- generally greater than one micron -- from an air stream through centrifugal force. A measurement of visibility. One deciview represents the minimal perceptible change in visibility to the human eye. Equipment that removes grease, dirt, or unwanted materials from any part or product. Degreasers typically use aqueous or nonaqueous solvents, as liquid baths or condensing vapors, to remove such material. Deposit Control Additives Substances added to motor vehicle fuel to reduce and prevent deposits in the fuel delivery system and engine intake valves. Design Value The pollutant concentration used by air quality managers as the basis for determining attainment of an air quality standard. generally by using an air quality model. The design value may or may not be the same as the designation value. The pollutant concentration used by air quality managers for designating attainment status of an air district with respect to the state and federal ambient air quality standards. Generally, the designation value is the highest concentration that remains after excluding certain qualifying values. For a specific pollutant, the designation value for the state and federal standards may not be the same. Diesel Engine A type of internal combustion engine that uses low-volatility petroleum fuel and fuel injectors and initiates combustion using compression ignition (as opposed to spark ignition that is used with gasoline engines). Discrete Early Action Items AB 32 directed ARB to identify and adopt climate change regulations for discrete early actions that could be enforceable on or before January 1, 2010. ARB identified nine discrete early action measures including regulations affecting landfills, motor vehicle fuels, refrigerants in cars, tire pressure, port operations and other sources in 2007 that included ship electrification at ports and reduction of high GWP gases in consumer products. Dispersion Model The amount of a pollutant that is absorbed. A level of exposure which is a function of a pollutants concentration, the length of time a subject is exposed and the amount of the pollutant that is absorbed. The concentration of the pollutant and the length of time that the subject is exposed to that pollutant determine dose. Dose-Response The relationship between the dose of a pollutant and the response (or effect) it produces on a biological system. Solid particulate matter that can become airborne. A nominal blend of 85 volume percent denatured ethanol and 15 volume percent unleaded gasoline that is used in flexible fuel vehicles. EAAC (Economic and Allocation Advisory Committee) The CalEPA Secretary and ARB Chairman created an Economic and Allocation Advisory Committee to advise ARB on the design of a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program. EAAC evaluated and provided recommendations on the implications of different allowance allocation strategies such as free allocation, auction, or a combination of both. EAAC also provided advice to ARB on its revised AB 32 economic analysis. EJAC (Environmental Justice Advisory Committee) AB 32 directed ARB to convene an Environmental Justice Advisory Committee to advise ARB on the implementation of AB 32. EJAC is comprised of representatives from communities in the state with the most significant exposure to air pollution, including, but not limited to, communities with minority populations or low-income populations. Electric Vehicle A motor vehicle that uses an electric motor as the basis of its operation. Such vehicles emit virtually no air pollutants. (See also hybrid electric vehicle .) For more information, please see our zero emission vehicles website. An air pollution control device that removes particulate matter from an air stream by imparting an electrical charge to the particles for mechanical collection at an electrode. For more information, visit our associated training class on this subject. Emission Factor For stationary sources. the relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the amount of raw material processed or burned. For mobile sources. the relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the number of vehicle miles traveled. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of materials used by a given source, it is possible to compute emissions for the source. This approach is used in preparing an emissions inventory. Visit U.S. EPA emission factors. or ARBs emission factors and toxic air contaminants. Emission Inventory An estimate of the amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere from major mobile, stationary, area-wide and natural source categories over a specific period of time such as a day or a year. For more information, visit our emissions inventory website. Emission Offsets (also known as Emissions Trading) A rule-making concept whereby approval of a new or modified stationary source of air pollution is conditional on the reduction of emissions from other existing stationary sources of air pollution. These reductions are required in addition to reductions required by best available control technology. For information see our New Source Review Emission Reduction Credit Offsets website. Emission Permit A non-transferable or tradable allocation of entitlements by a government to an individual firm to emit a specified amount of a substance. Emission Rate The weight of a pollutant emitted per unit of time (e.g. tonsyear). Released or discharged air contaminants in the ambient air from any source. The maximum amount of a pollutant that is allowed to be discharged from a polluting source such as an automobile or smoke stack. Energy Content The amount of energy available for doing work. For example, the amount of energy in fuel available for powering a motor vehicle. Enhanced AT PZEV Emissions certification standard for motor vehicles vehicle meets the requirements of an AT PZEV and has some all electric range, such as a plug-in hybrid, or has an internal combustion engine (ICE) that runs on hydrogen. Environmental Justice (EJ) The fair treatment of people of all races and incomes with respect to development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies. A label that provides a Global Warming Score and Smog Score, both on a scale from 1 to 10 (10 being cleanest). The Environmental Performance Label is required on all new cars sold in California that are manufactured after January 1, 2009. Primarily a combination of sidestream smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe or cigar and exhaled mainstream smoke from the smoker. Other components include smoke emitted at the mouthpiece during puff drawing. For more information, visit our environmental tobacco smoke website. Epidemiology The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease within a population. ETAAC (Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee) The committee was formed as directed by AB 32 to advise ARB on activities that will facilitate investment in and implementation of technological research and development opportunities including, but not limited to, identifying new technologies, research, demonstration projects, funding opportunities, developing state, national and international partnerships and technology transfer opportunities and, identifying and assessing research and advanced technology investment and incentive opportunities that will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The committee may also advise the ARB on state, regional, national and international economic and technological developments related to greenhouse gas emission reductions. Ethanol (ETOH) Ethyl-alcohol, a volatile alcohol containing two carbon groups (CH 3 CH 2 OH). For fuel use, ethanol is produced by fermentation of corn or other plant products. The chemical ethylene oxide (1,2-epoxyethane) which has been identified by the ARB and listed as a toxic air contaminant in title 17, California Code of Regulations, section 93000. Evaporative Emissions Emissions from evaporating gasoline, which can occur during vehicle refueling, vehicle operation and even when the vehicle is parked. Evaporative emissions can account for two-thirds of the hydrocarbon emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles on hot summer days. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) An emission control method that involves recirculating exhaust gases from an engine back into the intake and combustion chambers. This lowers combustion temperatures and reduces NOx. (See also nitrogen oxides .) The legal document that indicates that a product subject to ARB regulations has in fact meet those requirements and can be offered for sale in California. The Executive Order, or EO, also lists important compliance information such as the legal description of the product and manufacturer, the actual standards met, when the executive order was granted and any conditions of the certification. Exceedance A measured level of an air pollutant higher than the national or state ambient air quality standards. (See also NAAQS and CAAQS .) Expected Peak Day Concentration (EPDC) A calculated value that represents the concentration expected to occur at a particular site once per year, on average. The calculation procedure uses measured data collected at the site during a three-year period. Measured concentrations that are higher than the EPDC are excluded from the state area designation process. The concentration of the pollutant in the air multiplied by the population exposed to that concentration over a specified time period. Exposure Assessment Measurement or estimation of the magnitude, frequency, duration and route of exposure to a substance for the populations of interest. FED (Functional Equivalent Environmental Document) The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) allows public agencies to prepare a plan or other written documentation in lieu of an environmental impact report (i.e. a functional equivalent environmental document) which outlines the environmental analyses as part of any regulatory process. Prior to taking final action on any proposal for which significant environmental issues have been raised, the decision maker will provide a written response to each such issue. A federal law passed in 1970 and amended in 1974, 1977 and 1990 that forms the basis for the national air pollution control effort. Basic elements of the act include national ambient air quality standards for major air pollutants, mobile and stationary control measures, air toxics standards, acid rain control measures and enforcement provisions. For more information, visit the Federal Clean Air Act. Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) In the absence of an approved State Implementation Plan (SIP). a plan prepared by the U.S. EPA that provides measures that nonattainment areas must take to meet the requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act. A market-based emission fee in which the fee is levied on projected lifecycle vehicle emissions and is refunded according to an allocation formula. Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Vehicles that can use a combination of fuels such as alcohol fuel and unleaded gasoline. Air borne solid particles that result from the burning of coal and other solid fuel. Foreign Military Officer Any active duty military personnel of a foreign country assigned to a California military installation as part of an exchange or joint training agreement authorized or sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. Foreign Military Officers are not subject to California direct import vehicle requirements for registration and have the same privileges as out-of-state military personnel. Fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life. An electrochemical cell that captures the electrical energy of a chemical reaction between fuels such as liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and converts it directly and continuously into the energy of a direct electrical current. For more information, see the ARBs fuel cell portal. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) A zero-emission vehicle that runs on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell stack that produces electricity to power the vehicle. Dust particles that are introduced into the air through certain activities such as soil cultivation, or vehicles operating on open fields or dirt roadways. This is a subset of fugitive emissions. Emissions not caught by a capture system which are often due to equipment leaks, evaporative processes and windblown disturbances. Solid particles under 1 micron in diameter formed as vapors condense, or as chemical reactions take place. A combustion chamber an enclosed structure in which fuel is burned to heat air or material. Gas Turbine An engine that uses a compressor to draw in air and compress it. Fuel is then added to the air and combusted in a combustor. Hot combustion gases exiting the engine turn a turbine which also turns the compressor. The engines power output can be delivered from the compressor or turbine side of the engine. The evaporative properties of gasoline. Gasoline vapor is a volatile organic compound. (See also Reid Vapor Pressure .) An increase in the temperature of the Earths troposphere. Global warming has occurred in the past as a result of natural influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming predicted by computer models to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases. For more information, go to ARBs climate change website or check out its own glossary. The relative warming of a greenhouse gas over a specified period of time as compared to carbon dioxide (GWP of 1). GWP allows for the conversion of different greenhouse gas emissions into the same emissions unit, carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 E). Global Warming Score A score that ranks each vehicles CO 2 -equivalent value on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the cleanest) relative to all other vehicles. All vehicles manufactured after January 1, 2009, must display this score on the Environmental Performance Label. Goods Movement The processes and activities involved in the pickup, movement and delivery of goods (agricultural, consumer, industrial products and raw materials) from producerspoints of origin to consumerspoint of use or delivery. Goods movement relies on a series of transportation, financial and information systems for this to occur, that involves an international, national, state, regional and local networks of producers and suppliers, carriers and representative agents from the private sector, the public sector (federal, state, regional and local governmental agencies) and the general public. Greenhouse Effect The warming effect of the Earths atmosphere. Light energy from the sun which passes through the Earths atmosphere is absorbed by the Earths surface and re-radiated into the atmosphere as heat energy. The heat energy is then trapped by the atmosphere, creating a situation similar to that which occurs in a car with its windows rolled up. A number of scientists believe that the emission of CO 2 and other gases into the atmosphere may increase the greenhouse effect and contribute to global warming. (Climate Change: see ClimateChange.ca.gov gloss .) Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, ozone and water vapor that slow the passage of re-radiated heat through the Earths atmosphere. (See also ClimateChange.ca.gov gloss .) Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation model used to determine emissions from various vehicle and fuel combinations. Growth Management Plan A plan for a given geographical region containing demographic projections (i.e. housing units, employment and population) through some specified point in time and which provides recommendations for local governments to better manage growth and reduce projected environmental impacts. An air pollutant listed under section 112 (b) of the Federal Clean Air Act as particularly hazardous to health. Emission sources of hazardous air pollutants are identified by U.S. EPA and emission standards are set accordingly. For more information, visit our Title III website area. Haze (Hazy) A phenomenon that results in reduced visibility due to the scattering of light caused by aerosols. Haze is caused in large part by man-made air pollutants. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP) This regulation authorizes random roadside smoke opacity testing of heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses. The opacity of exhaust emitted from these engines must not exceed 40 percent (1991 and newer engine model years) or 55 percent (all pre-1991 engines). Gasoline and diesel trucks and buses are also inspected for tampering and for engine certification label compliance. Health-Based Standard (Primary Standard) A dosage of air pollution scientifically determined to protect against human health effects such as asthma, emphysema and cancer. Health Risk Assessment (HRA) A document that identifies the risks and quantities of possible adverse health effects that may result from exposure to emissions of toxic air contaminants. A health risk assessment cannot predict specific health effects it only describes the increased possibility of adverse health effects based on the best scientific information available. Hot Spot A vehicle that combines an internal combustion engine with a battery and electric motor. This combination offers the range and refueling capabilities of a conventional vehicle, while providing improved fuel economy and lower emissions. Compounds containing various combinations of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They may be emitted into the air by natural sources (e.g. trees) and as a result of fossil and vegetative fuel combustion, fuel volatilization and solvent use. Hydrocarbons are a major contributor to smog. (See also Reactive Organic Gases ). Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) A colorless, flammable, poisonous compound having a characteristic rotten-egg odor. It is used in industrial processes and may be emitted into the air. ICAT (Innovative Clean Air Technologies program) ICAT is an ARB program that co-funds the demonstration of innovative technologies that can reduce air pollution. Its purpose is to advance such technologies toward commercial application, thereby reducing emissions and helping the economy of California. Incremental Reactivity (IR) The additional ozone formed in the atmosphere with the incremental addition of a certain amount of a volatile organic compound. Incineration The act of burning a material to ashes. Any facility, building, structure, or installation, or combination thereof, which generates or attracts mobile source activity that results in emissions of any pollutant (or precursor) for which there is a state ambient air quality standard. Examples of indirect sources include employment sites, shopping centers, sports facilities, housing developments, airports, commercial and industrial development and parking lots and garages. Indirect Source Control Program Rules, regulations, local ordinances and land use controls and other regulatory strategies of air pollution control districts or local governments used to control or reduce emissions associated with new and existing indirect sources. Indirect source control programs include regulatory strategies such as transportation control measures (e.g. South Coasts Regulation XV for employer-based trip reduction) parking charges land use controls that reduce the need for vehicle travel and increase transit, bicycle and pedestrian access and, source-specific regulations such as truck idling and travel schedule requirements. Indirect Source Review A major component of an indirect source control program which applies to new and modified indirect sources. Strategies for indirect source review include permit programs, review and comment on new and modified indirect source projects through the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) process and coordination of air quality, transportation and land use policies through local government general plans. Indirect source review reduces emissions from new and modified sources through best available mitigation measures and additional offsite mitigation such as offsets and mitigation fees. Individual Cancer Risk The probability, expressed as chances in a million, that a person experiencing 70 years of continuous area-wide outdoor exposure to a toxic air contaminant will develop cancer. Indoor Air Pollution Air pollutants that occur within buildings or other enclosed spaces, as opposed to those occurring in outdoor, or ambient air. Some examples of indoor air pollutants are nitrogen oxides, smoke, asbestos, formaldehyde and carbon monoxide. For more information, visit our indoor air quality website. Industrial Source Any of a large number of sources -- such as manufacturing operations, oil and gas refineries, food processing plants and energy generating facilities -- that emit substances into the atmosphere. A gas that does not react with the substances coming in contact with it. A motor vehicle inspection program implemented by the California Bureau of Automotive Repair. The purpose of the IM is to reduce emissions by assuring that cars are running properly. It is designed to identify vehicles in need of maintenance and to assure the effectiveness of their emission control systems on a biennial basis. Enacted in 1979 and strengthened in 1990. (Also known as the Smog Check program.) An air sampling device that allows estimation of air quality components over a period of time through laboratory analysis of the samplers medium. (See also Continuous Sampling Device .) Internal Combustion Engine An engine in which both the heat energy and the ensuing mechanical energy are produced inside the engine. Includes gas turbines, spark ignition gas and compression ignition diesel engines. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) An expert international agency of the World Health Organization which publishes evaluations of evidence on the carcinogenicity of a wide range of chemicals. For more information, visit our IARC website. A layer of warm air in the atmosphere that prevents the rise of cooling air and traps pollutants beneath it. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide the decision-makers and others interested in climate change with an objective source of information about climate change. Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) Private companies that provide a utility, such as water, natural gas or electricity, to a specific service area. A gray-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile and resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentrations in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage and learning disabilities. Lead is the only substance which is currently listed as both a criteria air pollutant and a toxic air contaminant. A reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases within the state that is offset by an increase in emissions of greenhouse gases outside the state. Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Any motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of 6,000 pounds or less. Limit of Detection (LOD) The lowest concentration of a substance that can be reliably measured. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) LCFS is a discreet early action measure of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. This regulation reduces the carbon intensity (greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy in the fuel) of transportation fuels by 10 percent by 2020. Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) A vehicle that meets the ARBs low emission vehicle standards. For more information, please go to our low emission vehicle website. Low Emission Vehicle II (LEV II) California exhaust emission standards for 2004 and subsequent model passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty vehicles. Find more information at Drive Clean. Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) Under the Clean Air Act. the rate of emissions that reflects, the most stringent emission limitation in the State Implementation Plan of any state for a given source unless the owner or operator demonstrates such limitations are not achievable or, the most stringent emissions limitation achieved in practice, whichever is more stringent. Low NOx Burners One of several combustion technologies used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. A measure of the ability of an oil or other compound to lubricate (reduce friction) between two surfaces in contact. A stationary facility that emits a regulated pollutant in an amount exceeding the threshold level depending on the location of the facility and attainment with regard to air quality status. (See Source .) Market-Based Approaches A system of market-based declining annual aggregate emissions limitations for sources, or categories of sources, that emit greenhouse gases. Market-based can also refer to greenhouse gas emissions exchanges, banking, credits and other transactions, governed by rules and protocols established by the ARB, that result in the same greenhouse gas emission reduction, over the same time period, as direct compliance with a greenhouse gas emission limit or emission reduction measure adopted by the ARB. Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Federal emissions limitations based on the best demonstrated control technology or practices in similar sources to be applied to major sources emitting one or more federal hazardous air pollutants. For more information, visit our Title III website. Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) A measure of the increase in ozone formation per unit weight of a hydrocarbon when added to the atmosphere. The middle value in a population distribution, above and below which lie an equal number of individual values midpoint. Melting Point The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. At this temperature, the solid and the liquid have the same vapor pressure. The layer of the Earths atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. It is between 35 and 60 miles from the Earth. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) An ether compound added to gasoline to provide oxygen and enhance complete combustion. MTBE has been phased out of Californias gasoline. See our fuels website, for more information. Military Personnel Active duty members of the U.S. armed forces or reserves assigned to California facilities and active duty. Capable of being mixed with other substances. Million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. Sources of air pollution such as automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, off-road vehicles, boats and airplanes. (See also stationary sources. ) For more information, please go to our mobile sources portal page. Monitoring The periodic or continuous sampling and analysis of air pollutants in ambient air or from individual pollution sources. Motor Vehicle Fee Program Rate of disease incidence. Multimedia Exposure Exposure to a toxic substance from multiple pathways such as air, water, soil, food and breast milk. The ability of a chemical or physical agent to produce heritable changes in the DNA of living cells. Standards established by the U.S. EPA that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. There are two types of NAAQS. Primary standards set limits to protect public health and secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare. For more information, visit our AAQS website. The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are set by the U.S. EPA for an air pollutant not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. Non-manmade emission sources, including biological and geological sources, wildfires and windblown dust. New Solar Home Partnership (NSHP) Part of the comprehensive statewide solar program. The NSHP program provides financial incentives and other support to home builders, encouraging the construction of new, energy efficient solar homes that save homeowners money on their electric bills and protect the environment. New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Uniform national U.S. EPA air emission standards that limit the amount of pollution allowed from new sources or from modified existing sources. For more information, see our Title V website. A Clean Air Act requirement that State Implementation Plans must include a permit review, which applies to the construction and operation of new and modified stationary sources in nonattainment areas. to ensure attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The two major requirements of NSR are Best Available Control Technology and Emission Offsets. For more information, see our New Source Review website. New Vehicle Any vehicle transferred with less than 7,500 miles, or any vehicle that has not yet been issued a title (regardless of mileage). NIST Cert of Standards The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides standard reference materials used to confirm the accuracy and traceability of standards for calibrating instrumentation used to measure atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. Nitric Oxide (NO) A Precursor of ozone. NO 2 and nitrate nitric oxide is usually emitted from combustion processes. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the atmosphere and then becomes involved in the photochemical processes andor particulate formation. (See Nitrogen Oxides .) A general term pertaining to compounds of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and other oxides of nitrogen. Nitrogen oxides are typically created during combustion processes and are major contributors to smog formation and acid deposition. NO2 is a criteria air pollutant and may result in numerous adverse health effects. Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) is the six asbestos minerals that have been identified as toxic air contaminants and occur naturally in rocks and soils. During many earth-disturbing activities, asbestos minerals may be released from rocks and soils, become airborne and inhaled deep into the lung. A geographic area identified by the U.S. EPA andor ARB as not meeting either NAAQS or CAAQS standards for a given pollutant. For more information, visit our designated areas website. Nonattainment Transitional A subcategory of the nonattainment designation category for state standards that signals progress and implies the area is nearing attainment. Districts with nonattainment-transitional status may revise their attainment plans to delay adoption of control measures anticipating attainment without the measures. Non-carcinogenic Effects Non-cancer health effects which may include birth defects, organ damage, morbidity and death. Non-Industrial Source Any of a large number of sources -- such as mobile, area-wide, indirect and natural sources -- which emit substances into the atmosphere. The sum of all hydrocarbon air pollutants except methane. NMHCs are significant precursors to ozone formation. The sum of non-methane hydrocarbons and other organic gases such as aldehydes, ketones and ethers. Non-Point Sources Diffuse pollution sources that are not recognized to have a single point of origin. Non-Road Emissions Pollutants emitted by a variety of non-road sources such as farm and construction equipment, gasoline-powered lawn and garden equipment, power boats and outboard motors. For more information, see our offroad website. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) A term used in risk assessment. An exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in the frequency or severity of adverse effects between an exposed population and a comparable non-exposed population. No-Observed-Effect-Level (NOEL) A term used in risk assessment. An exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant difference or severity of any effect between an exposed population and a comparable non-exposed population. Octane Number A numerical measure of the antiknock properties of gasoline used as a motor fuel. The higher the octane number, the greater the antiknock properties. A department within the California Environmental Protection Agency that is responsible for evaluating chemicals for adverse health impacts and establishing safe exposure levels. OEHHA also assists in performing health risk assessments and developing risk assessment procedures for air quality management purposes. Visit the OEHHAs home page. Offsets are tradable credits that represent greenhouse gas emissions reductions that are made in areas or sectors not covered by a cap-and-trade program. Under a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program. covered entities could buy offset credits in lieu of buying allowances or reducing their greenhouse gas emissions on-site. One offset credit would be equal to one metric ton of greenhouse gas emissions. Offsets must meet rigorous criteria that demonstrate that the emissions reductions are real, permanent, verifiable, enforceable and quantifiable. A class of unsaturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH 2 n. Olefins in gasoline are responsible for the formation of deposits in storage tanks, fuel ducts and injectors. Therefore, their volume is limited by the reformulated gasoline regulation. Onboard Diagnostics (OBD) Devices that are incorporated into the computer systems of new motor vehicles to monitor components and systems that affect emissions when malfunctioning. If a problem is detected, the OBD system illuminates a warning lamp on the vehicle instrument panel to alert the driver. This warning lamp typically contains the phrase Check Engine or Service Engine Soon. The system will also store important information about the detected malfunction so that a repair technician can accurately find and fix the problem. For more information, visit our on-board diagnostics website. Onboard Vapor Recovery Devices placed on vehicles to capture gasoline vapor during refueling and then route the vapors to the engine when the vehicle is started so that they can be efficiently burned. On-Road, On-Road Vehicle Vehicles that are intended by their manufacturer for use on public highways. On-road vehicles must be certified by their manufacturer with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA), as compliant with on-highway safety standards as well as certified to all applicable ARB and U.S. EPA on-road emission standards. Compliance with these standards is indicated by separate safety and emissions labels on the vehicle. The amount of light obscured by particle pollution in the atmosphere. Opacity is used as an indicator of changes in performance of particulate control systems. Organic Compounds A large group of chemical compounds containing mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. All living organisms are made up of organic compounds. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) The OCS is all submerged lands lying seaward of state coastal waters (3 miles offshore) which are under U.S. jurisdiction. A substance that brings about oxidation in other substances. Oxidizing agents (oxidants) contain atoms that have suffered electron loss. In oxidizing other substances, these atoms gain electrons. Ozone. which is a primary component of smog. is an example of an oxidant. The chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen or a reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electrons and its valence is correspondingly increased. An organic molecule that contains oxygen. Oxygenates are typically ethers and alcohols. The most common oxygenate is ethanol in gasoline, which now runs about 10 percent by volume. The purpose of the oxygenate is to help the gasoline burn more completely, reducing carbon monoxide emissions. This is especially important during the winter months. A strong smelling, pale blue, reactive toxic chemical gas consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is a product of the photochemical process involving the suns energy and ozone precursors. such as hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. Ozone exists in the upper atmosphere ozone layer (stratospheric ozone) as well as at the Earths surface in the troposphere (ozone). Ozone in the troposphere causes numerous adverse health effects and is a criteria air pollutant. It is a major component of smog. Ozone Depletion The reduction in the stratospheric ozone layer. Stratospheric ozone shields the Earth from ultraviolet radiation. The breakdown of certain chlorine andor bromine-containing compounds that catalytically destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere can cause a reduction in the ozone layer. For more information, go to U.S. EPAs website on this subject. Ozone-Forming Potential Ozone Generator Some indoor air purifiers or air cleaners emit ozone, a major component of outdoor smog, either intentionally or as a by-product of their design. Those that intentionally emit ozone are often called ozone generators. A layer of ozone in the lower portion of the stratosphere -- 12 to 15 miles above the Earths surface -- which helps to filter out harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. It may be contrasted with the ozone component of photochemical smog near the Earths surface, which is harmful. Chemicals such as non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. occurring either naturally or as a result of human activities, which contribute to the formation of ozone. a major component of smog. Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) Vehicles that meet the ARB super ultra low emissions standard, have zero evaporative emissions and have a 15 year150,000 mile warranty. See our Drive Clean website. Any material, except pure water, that exists in the solid or liquid state in the atmosphere. The size of particulate matter can vary from coarse, wind-blown dust particles to fine particle combustion products. For more information, see ARBs PM brochure. Peak Levels A level of airborne pollutants that is much higher than average. They can occur over a short period of minutes or hours in response to sudden releases, or they can occur due to a longer term build-up over several days. Perchloroethylene (Perc) The substance with the chemical formula C 2 C l4 , also known by the name tetrachloroethylene which has been identified by the ARB and listed as a toxic air contaminant (title 17, California Code of Regulations, section 93000). Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP) Regulation requiring fleet owners of two or more heavy-duty diesel powered trucks or buses to perform annual smoke opacity inspections on each vehicles engine that is four years old or older. Engines that exceed opacity standards must be repaired to be brought into compliance. Fleet owners must keep records of the annual smoke test for two years and make these records available to ARB upon request. Written authorization from a government agency (e.g. an air quality management district ) that allows for the construction andor operation of an emissions generating facility or its equipment within certain specified limits. For more information, visit our permitting activities portal page. Permit to Operate (PO) An operational permit issued yearly by an air district to sources that meet specified regulations. Peroxyacytal Nitrate (PAN) A group of compounds formed from the photochemical reactions of nitrogen and organic compounds. PANs are components of smog and known to cause eye irritation. Persistence Refers to the length of time a compound stays in the atmosphere. once introduced. A compound may persist for less than a second or indefinitely. Personal Watercraft (PWC) Watercraft that do not have outboard, inboard, or stern drive engines. This encompasses the watercraft typically referred to as Jet Skis, Waverunners, etc. For more information, see our recreational marine website. Photochemical Reaction A term referring to chemical reactions brought about by the light energy of the sun. The reaction of nitrogen oxides with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to form ozone is an example of a photochemical reaction. Photolysis Chemical decomposition induced by light or other energy. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) A vehicle that is similar to traditional hybrids but is also equipped with a larger, more advanced battery that allows the vehicle to be plugged in and recharged in addition to refueling with gasoline. This larger battery allows you to drive on a combination of electric and gasoline fuels. See our Drive Clean website. A visible or measurable discharge of a contaminant from a given point of origin that can be measured according to the Ringelmann scale. (See Ringelmann Chart .) Includes tiny particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 microns. This fraction of particulate matter penetrates most deeply into the lungs. For more information, see our particulate matter website. A criteria air pollutant consisting of small particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 microns (about 17 the diameter of a single human hair). Their small size allows them to make their way to the air sacs deep within the lungs where they may be deposited and result in adverse health effects. PM10 also causes visibility reduction. For more information, see our particulate matter brochure. Point Sources Specific points of origin where pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere such as factory smokestacks. (See also Area-Wide Sources and Fugitive Emissions .) Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) A numerical index formerly used for reporting severity of air pollution levels to the general public. The PSI incorporated the five criteria pollutants -- ozone. PM10. carbon monoxide. sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide -- into one single index. The PSI was based on the 1-hour ozone standard. PSI levels ranged from 0 (Good air quality) to 500 (Hazardous air quality). The higher the index, the higher the level of pollutants and the greater likelihood of health effects. For more information, see our Air Quality Index werbsite. The use of materials, processes, or practices to reduce, minimize, or eliminate the creation of pollutants or wastes. It includes practices that reduce the use of toxic or hazardous materials, energy, water andor other resources. For more information, see our Pollution Prevention Program website. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Organic compounds which include only carbon and hydrogen with a fused ring structure containing at least two benzene (six-sided) rings. PAHs may also contain additional fused rings that are not six-sided. The combustion of organic substances is a common source of atmospheric PAHs. Natural or synthetic chemical compounds composed of up to millions of repeated linked units, each of a relatively light and simple molecule. Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) An emission control system for a reciprocating internal combustion engine that involves recirculating gases that blow by the piston rings during combustion from the crankcase back into the intake manifold so they can be more completely burned. Publically Owned Treatment Works (POTW) are facilities designed to collect, transmit and treat wastewater that may be generated by industrial, commercial andor domestic sources. Treatment works include the wastewater treatment units themselves, as well as intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, pumping, power and other equipment. Precipitator Pollution control device that collects particles from an air stream. (See Electrostatic Precipitator .) Prescribed Burning The planned application of fire to vegetation to achieve any specific objective on lands selected in advance of that application. In California, prescribed burning is governed under the Agricultural Burning Guidelines. A permitting program for new and modified stationary sources of air pollution located in an area that attains or is unclassified for national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS ). The PSD program is designed to ensure that air quality does not degrade beyond those air quality standards or beyond specified incremental amounts. The PSD permitting process requires new and modified facilities above a specified size threshold to be carefully reviewed prior to construction for air quality impacts. PSD also requires those facilities to apply BACT to minimize emissions of air pollutants. A public notification process is conducted prior to issuance of final PSD permits. Primary Particles Particles that are directly emitted from combustion and fugitive dust sources. (Compare with Secondary Particle .) Propellant A gas with a high vapor pressure used to force formulations out of aerosol spray cans. Among the gases used are butanes, propanes and nitrogen. Proposition 65 Safe Drinking and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, also known as Proposition 65. This act is codified in California Health and Safety Code section 25249.5, et seq. No person in the course of doing business shall knowingly discharge or release a chemical known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity into water or into land where such chemical passes or probably will pass into any source of drinking water, without first giving clear and reasonable warning to such individual. For more information, visit the OEHHAs Prop 65 website. Public Owned Utilities (POUs) Non-profit utility providers owned by a community and operated by municipalities, counties, states, public power districts, or other public organizations. Within POUs, residents have a say in decisions and policies about rates, services, generating fuels and the environment. Public Workshop A workshop held by a public agency for the purpose of informing the public and obtaining its input on the development of a regulatory action or control measure by that agency. A colorless, naturally occurring, radioactive, inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks. A term used in the context of air quality management to describe a hydrocarbons ability to react (participate in photochemical reactions) to form ozone in the atmosphere. Different hydrocarbons react at different rates. The more reactive a hydrocarbon, the greater potential it has to form ozone. Reasonably Available Control Measures (RACM) A broadly defined term referring to technologies and other measures that can be used to control pollution. They include Reasonably Available Control Technology and other measures. In the case of PM10. RACM refers to approaches for controlling small or dispersed source categories such as road dust, woodstoves and open burning. Control techniques defined in U.S. EPA guidelines for limiting emissions from existing sources in nonattainment areas. RACTs are adopted and implemented by states. For more information, visit our RACT website. Reasonably Available Retrofit Control Technology (RARCT) Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine An engine in which air and fuel are introduced into cylinders, compressed by pistons and ignited by a spark plug or by compression. Combustion in the cylinders pushes the pistons sequentially, transferring energy to the crankshaft, causing it to rotate. Reference Dose (RfD) An estimate delivered by the U.S. EPA (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of the daily exposure to the human population, (including sensitive subpopulations) that is likely to be without deleterious effects during a lifetime. The RfD is reported in units of mg of substancekg body weightday for oral exposures. Reference Exposure Concentration (RfC) An estimate, derived by the U.S. EPA with an uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population, (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime of exposure. The RfC is derived from a no or lowest observed adverse effect level from human or animal exposures, to which uncertainty or safety factors are applied. Reference Exposure Level (REL) A term used in risk assessment. It is the concentration at or below which no adverse health effects are anticipated for a specified exposure period. A facility that produces liquid fuels by distilling petroleum. Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Also called Cleaner Burning Gasoline (CBG). Gasoline with a different composition from conventional gasoline (e.g. lower aromatics content) that results in the production of lower levels of air pollutants. For more information, see our cleaner burning gasoline website. Reformulated Gasoline Predictive Model A set of mathematical equations that predict the emissions likely to occur from the combustion of a given formulation of gasoline. For more information, see our predictive model website area. Reforestation Establishing native tree cover on lands that were previously forested, but that have had less than 10 percent tree canopy cover for a minimum time of 10 years. Regional Haze The haze produced by a multitude of sources and activities which emit fine particles and their precursors across a broad geographic area. National regulations require states to develop plans to reduce the regional haze that impairs visibility in national parks and wilderness areas. Registration Stop (or VLT Stop) A hold placed on a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine to prevent registration or title being issued. Registration stops may be placed by DMV, ARB or CHP staff. Stops are placed because of illegal registration attempts, illegal sales, or placed on heavy-duty vehicles that have been retired by their previous owners. Registration stops do not expire however, a vehicle with a stop may be dropped from the DMV computer record after 7-10 years. Refers to the vapor pressure of the fuel expressed in the nearest hundredth of a pound per square inch (psi) with a higher number reflecting more gasoline evaporation. (See also Gasoline Volatility .) Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) A federal program to increase the volume of renewable fuels used in transportation fuels. Created under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and revised by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the RFS program requires increasing annual volumes of renewable fuel, starting from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Within those total volumes, the RFS also requires certain volumes of specific fuels, such as cellulosic and advanced biofuels. A series of charts, numbered 0 to 5, that simulate various smoke densities by presenting different percentages of black. A Ringelmann No. 1 is equivalent to 20 percent black a Ringelmann No. 5 is 100 percent black. They are used for measuring the opacity or equivalent obscuration of smoke arising from stacks and other sources by matching the actual effluent with the various numbers, or densities, indicated by the charts. Research Screening Committee (RSC) The Boards legislatively mandated committee consists of scientists, engineers and others knowledgeable, technically qualified and experienced in air pollution problems. The committee meets approximately four times a year to review proposed and completed research projects. Residual Risk The quantity of health risk remaining after application of emission control. Risk Assessment An evaluation of risk which estimates the relationship between exposure to a harmful substance and the likelihood that harm will result from that exposure. Risk Management An evaluation of the need for and feasibility of reducing risk. It includes consideration of magnitude of risk, available control technologies and economic feasibility. Actions taken against a state or local government by the federal government for failure to plan or to implement a State Implementation Plan (SIP). Examples include withholding of highway funds and a ban on construction of new sources of potential pollution. SB 25 (Childrens Environmental Health Protection Act) Changes to state law (Senate Bill 25, Escutia, 1999) established requirements for the ARB and the OEHHA to examine the impacts of air pollution on childrens health. Specifically, the act required the state to evaluate all ambient air quality standards to determine whether these standards adequately protect human health, particularly that of infants and children and, to identify toxic air contaminants that disproportionately impact children. Scientific Review Panel (SRP) Mandated by AB 1807. this nine-member panel advises the ARB. OEHHA and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation on the scientific adequacy of the risk assessment portion of reports issued by those three agencies in the process of identifying substances as toxic air contaminants. For more information, visit our SRP website. Scoping Plan AB 32 directed ARB to prepare a scoping plan for achieving the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. The scoping plan provides the outline for actions to reduce greenhouse gases in California. The approved scoping plan indicates how these emission reductions will be achieved from significant greenhouse gas sources via regulations, market mechanisms and other actions. An air pollution control device that uses a high energy liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream. The gases are removed either by absorption or chemical reaction. Secondhand Smoke Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). or secondhand smoke, is a complex mixture of thousands of gases and fine particles emitted by the burning of tobacco products from the smoke exhaled by the smoker. Other minor contributors to ETS are from the smoke that is emitted from the smoldering end of the tobacco product and the vapor-phase related compounds that diffuse from the wrapper of the tobacco product. Particles that are formed in the atmosphere. Secondary particles are products of the chemical reactions between gases, such as nitrates, sulfur oxides. ammonia and organic products. Senate Bill 1731 (Calderon, 1993) SB 1731 amended the Air Toxics Hot Spots Information and Assessment Act (AB 2588, Hot Spots or Program 1987, Connelly) by adding two major elements. The first element required the OEHHA to adopt risk assessment guidelines for the program using a full public review process. These new risk assessment guidelines superseded the previous guidelines and include supplemental exposure information. Second, facilities determined to have a significant risk by the district, must conduct an airborne toxic risk reduction audit and develop a plan to implement airborne toxic risk reduction measures. The ARB is required to provide assistance to smaller businesses for developing and applying risk reduction techniques. As part of that assistance, the ARB developed guideline documents on how to conduct an audit, including a self-conducted checklist for certain industries. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System An emission control system that reduces NOx emissions through the catalytic reduction of NOx in diesel exhaust to N 2 and H 2 O by injecting nitrogen-containing compounds into the exhaust stream, such as ammonia or urea. Sensitive Groups Identifiable subsets of the general population that are at greater risk than the general population to the toxic effects of a specific air pollutant (e.g. infants, asthmatics, elderly). Sequestration SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) SF6 is a colorless, non-toxic and non-flammable gas under standard conditions. It is used in many applications including as a gaseous dielectric medium in the electrical industry, an inert gas for the casting of magnesium, a tracer gas and an etchant in the semiconductor industry. SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 23,900 times that of carbon dioxide when compared over a 100-year period. Shore power, also known as Cold Ironing. refers to providing electrical power to a vessel that is docked. The purpose of shore power is to allow the vessel operator to turn off the vessels auxiliary engines, which would normally be providing the necessary electricity. Although there are emissions associated with the generation of electricity used for shore power, those emissions are much less than those from the auxiliary engines, which burn diesel fuel. A combination of smoke and other particulates, ozone. hydrocarbons. nitrogen oxides and other chemically reactive compounds which, under certain conditions of weather and sunlight, may result in a murky brown haze that causes adverse health effects. The primary source of smog in California is motor vehicles. Smog Check Program Smog Score A score that ranks each vehicles smog emissions on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the cleanest) relative to all other vehicles. All vehicles manufactured after January 1, 2009, must display this score on the Environmental Performance Label. For more information, visit our Drive Clean website. A form of air pollution consisting primarily of particulate matter (i.e. particles released by combustion). Other components of smoke include gaseous air pollutants such as hydrocarbons. oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Sources of smoke may include fossil fuel combustion, agricultural burning and other combustion processes. Solvent Base Hydrocarbon -containing compounds such as paint thinner used for the purpose of thinning various types of coatings such as paint. Very fine carbon particles that have a black appearance when emitted into the air. Any place or object from which air pollutants are released. Sources that are fixed in space are stationary sources and sources that move are mobile sources. Speciation Speciation is the analytical activity of identifying andor measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. Spray Booth A power ventilated structure enclosing a coating operation, to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor and residue and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system. The spray booth contains and captures particulate emissions and vents them to a control device. Stakeholders Residents, environmentalists, businesses and government representatives that have a stake or concern about how air quality is managed. A plan prepared by states and submitted to U.S. EPA describing how each area will attain and maintain national ambient air quality standards. SIPs include the technical foundation for understanding the air quality (e.g. emission inventories and air quality monitoring), control measures and strategies and enforcement mechanisms. (See also AQMP .) For more information, visit our SIP website. Non-mobile sources such as power plants, refineries and manufacturing facilities which emit air pollutants. Storage Tank Any stationary container, reservoir, or tank, used for storage of liquids. The layer of the Earths atmosphere above the troposphere and below the mesosphere. It extends between 10 and 30 miles above the Earths surface and contains the ozone layer in its lower portion. The stratospheric layer mixes relatively slowly pollutants that enter it may remain for long periods of time. Suggested Control Measure (SCM) A model rule developed by air quality managers for local air districts to use to control the emissions from certain stationary sources of air pollution. Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) A strong smelling, colorless gas that is formed by the combustion of fossil fuels. Power plants, which may use coal or oil high in sulfur content, can be major sources of SO 2 and other sulfur oxides contribute to the problem of acid deposition. SO 2 is a criteria air pollutant. Pungent, colorless gases (sulfates are solids) formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels. especially coal and oil. Considered major air pollutants, sulfur oxides may impact human health and damage vegetation. Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) A vehicle that meets the ARBs super ultra-low emission vehicle standard of 0.03 grams per mile of NMOG NOx. See our Drive Clean website. An intermediate gasoline distribution facility where delivery of gasoline to and from the facility is solely by pipeline. Thermal Spraying A process in which metallic or nonmetallic materials are heated to a molten or nearly molten state and are sprayed onto a surface to form a coating. The material may originate in the form of powder, rod, or wire before it is heated, prior to spraying and deposition. Materials can be heated by combustion of fuel gases (similar to welding) or by using electricity. Thermal spraying includes processes such as flame spraying, plasma spraying, high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spraying and twin wire electric arc spraying. The outermost layer of the Earths atmosphere extending from about 60 miles to several hundred miles above the planets surface. The temperature of this layer varies from many hundreds to thousands of degrees Celsius. A section of the 1990 amendments to the federal Clean Air Act that addresses the control of toxic air emissions. For more information, visit our Title III website. A section of the 1990 amendments to the federal Clean Air Act that requires a federally enforceable operating permit for major sources of air pollution. For more information, visit our Title V website. Topography The configuration of a surface, especially the Earths surface, including its relief and the position of its natural and man-made features. Total Organic Gases (TOG) Gaseous organic compounds, including reactive organic gases and the relatively unreactive organic gases such as methane. Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) Particles of solid or liquid matter -- such as soot, dust, aerosols, fumes and mist -- up to approximately 30 microns in size. An air pollutant, identified in regulation by the ARB, which may cause or contribute to an increase in deaths or in serious illness, or which may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. TACs are considered under a different regulatory process (California Health and Safety Code section 39650 et seq.) than pollutants subject to CAAQSs. Health effects to TACs may occur at extremely low levels and it is typically difficult to identify levels of exposure which do not produce adverse health effects. For more information, visit our toxics website. Toxic Best Available Control Technology (T-BACT) The most effective emission limitation or control technique which has been achieved in practice or found by the ARB Executive Officer or Air Pollution Control Officer of the local districts to be technologically feasible. A location where emissions from specific sources may expose individuals and population groups to elevated risks of adverse health effects -- including but not limited to cancer -- and contribute to the cumulative health risks of emissions from other sources in the area. For more information, visit our toxics hot spots website. Transfer Efficiency For coatings. a measure of the percent of the total amount of coating used which is transferred to a unit surface by a spray gun or other device. Transport Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Refrigeration systems powered by integral internal combustion engines designed to control the environment of temperature-sensitive products that are transported in trucks and refrigerated trailers. TRUs may be capable of both cooling and heating. Transportation Control Measure (TCM) Any control measure to reduce vehicle trips, vehicle use, vehicle miles traveled, vehicle idling, or traffic congestion for the purpose of reducing motor vehicle emissions. TCMs can include encouraging the use of carpools and mass transit. The layer of the Earths atmosphere nearest to the surface of the Earth. The troposphere extends outward about five miles at the poles and about 10 miles at the equator. Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) A vehicle that meets the ARBs ultra-low emission standards of 0.125 grams per mile of NMOG NOx. The average 2010 car sold in California is a ULEV. See our Drive Clean website. Underground Storage Tank (UST) Refers to tanks used to store gasoline underground. For more information, vist the underground storage tank website. The federal agency charged with setting policy and guidelines and carrying out legal mandates for the protection of national interests in environmental resources. For more information, visit the U.S. EPA website. Unit Risk Number The number of potential excess cancer cases from a lifetime exposure to one microgram per cubic meter (m3) of a given substance. For example, a unit risk value of 5.5x10-6 would indicate an estimated 5.5 cancer cases per million people exposed to an average concentration of 1 m3 of a specific carcinogen for 70 years. Upstream Emissions Emissions from processes that take place up to when the fuel enters a vehicle---typically during extraction, production, distribution and dispensing of the fuel. Urban Airshed Model A three-dimensional photochemical grid model designed to calculate the concentrations of both inert and chemically reactive pollutants in the atmosphere. It simulates the physical and chemical processes that affect pollution concentrations. Used Vehicle Any vehicle that has been transferred after being issued a title and has over 7,500 miles. (Reference statute: HampS code 43150-43156.) The gaseous phase of liquids or solids at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Vapor Density The vapor density is expressed in grams per liter (gL) and is compared to the density of air (air1). Vapor Pressure The pressure, often expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or pounds per square inch (PSI), that is characteristic at any given temperature of a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid form. Vapor Recovery Systems Mechanical systems that collect and recover chemical vapors resulting from transfer of gasoline from operations such as tank-to-truck systems at refineries, tanker-to-pipeline systems at offshore oil operations and pump-to-vehicle systems at gasoline stations. For more information, visit our vapor recovery website. Permission granted for a limited time (under stated conditions) for a person or company to operate outside the limits prescribed in a regulation. Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) The miles traveled by motor vehicles over a specified length of time (e.g. daily, monthly or yearly) or over a specified road or transportation corridor. Vessel Speed Reduction (VSR) A way to reduce emissions of NOx. SOx. diesel PM and CO 2 from oceangoing vessels. Emissions are decreased when vessels slow their speeds, thereby reducing the energy requirements of the main engine. The Ports of Los Angeles (POLA), Long Beach (POLB), and San Diego (POSD) currently have a voluntary VSR program in place which requests that vessels slow to 12 knots from certain distances from port (20 nautical miles (nm) for POSD and 20 or 40 nm for POLA and POLB). Ports typically offer incentives for complying. The degree to which a fluid resists flow under an applied force. A measurement of the ability to see and identify objects at different distances. Visibility reduction from air pollution is often due to the presence of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. as well as particulate matter. Visibility Reducing Particles (VRP) Any particles in the atmosphere that obstruct the range of visibility. Any substance that evaporates readily. Carbon-containing compounds that evaporate into the air (with a few exceptions). VOCs contribute to the formation of smog andor may themselves be toxic. VOCs often have an odor and some examples include gasoline, alcohol and the solvents used in paints. Water Base Water used as the solvent for coatings such paint. Water Solubility The solubility of a substance in water provides information on the fate and transport in the environment. The higher the water solubility, the greater the tendency to remain dissolved and the less likely to volatilize from the water. Low water soluble substances will volatilize more readily in water and will partition to soil or bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. Weight of Evidence The extent to which the available information supports the hypothesis that a substance causes an effect in humans. For example, factors which determine the weight-of-evidence that a chemical poses a hazard to humans include the number of tissue sites affected by the agent the number of animal species, strains, sexes, relationship, statistical significance in the occurrence of the adverse effect in treated subjects compared to untreated controls and, the timing of the occurrence of adverse effect. Welfare-Based Standard (Secondary Standard) An air quality standard that prevents, reduces, or minimizes injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the deterioration of property and hazards to air and ground transportation. Well to Tank Emissions associated with a fuel from extraction to the tank it sits in prior to entering a vehicle. Well to Wheels Emissions associated with a fuel from extraction to when it enters and is used by a vehicle. Woodburning Pollution Air pollution caused by woodburning stoves and fireplaces that emit particulate matter. carbon monoxide and odorous and toxic substances. For more information, visit our disposal of non-industrial wood waste website. Vehicles which produce no emissions from the on-board source of power (e.g. an electric vehicle). For more information, visit our zero emission vehicles program website or our Drive Clean website. This gloss has been reviewed by the staff of the California Air Resources Board and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the ARB. Although the ARB has taken many steps to ensure that the information in this gloss is correct and up-to-date, readers should note that the codes are frequently amended, and the courts from time to time interpret their provisions. When necessary, readers should consult the official codes and handbooks or procure the services of an attorney. Copies of the California Codes can be found in each countys library and in law school libraries.
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