Sistem perdagangan Mesir

Sistem perdagangan Mesir

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Hukum dan Ketertiban Meskipun ada perbedaan bagaimana anggota berbagai kelas sosial diobati dan diadili 11. Tidak ada kekayaan atau kemuliaan yang mengangkat seseorang di atas hukum Taurat. Pengkhianatan tinggi yang dilakukan oleh bangsawan dan pejabat yang hebat ditangani dengan ketat. Hakim dan pemungut pajak menyalahgunakan kekuasaan mereka, terutama selama masa kerusuhan, dan juru tulis terkadang memalsukan data kadaster jika mereka tertangkap, hukuman mereka bisa menjadi biadab. Karena keberadaan dan kelancaran fungsi negara bergantung pada aktivitas mereka, menolak pejabat negara yang melakukan tugas mereka atau menyuap mereka harus ditekan dengan biaya apapun, seperti halnya sumpah palsu, tuduhan palsu dan pernyataan dan pengaruh yang tidak semestinya terhadap prosedur peradilan. Perilaku buruk harus dihukum, kehormatan dijunjung tinggi, kedamaian antar tetangga, dan kehidupan masyarakat dan properti yang dilindungi. Tidak melaporkan tindak kejahatan adalah kejahatan itu sendiri: Penjahat besar, Weren, yang adalah kepala pelayan. Dia dibawa masuk karena mendengar kata-kata dari kepala bilik, dan ketika dia menarik diri darinya dia menyembunyikannya dan tidak melaporkannya. Dia ditempatkan di hadapan para bangsawan di pengadilan pemeriksaan sehingga mereka merasa bersalah bahwa mereka membawa hukuman kepadanya. Perhatian dan kehebatan, kejahatan kembar dalam masyarakat di mana ilahi dan sekuler terjalin erat, sangat kejam. Mereka adalah pelanggaran terhadap apa yang akan kita lihat sebagai institusi dunia nyata dan raja, namun di mata orang-orang Mesir kuno agak menghina para dewa dan tatanan dunia yang telah mereka lakukan. Kita tahu beberapa, tampaknya upaya langka pada kehidupan raja 28. Tapi ada juga pelanggaran yang lebih rendah: Kelaparan yang terjadi di Selat Malaka mengancam orang-orang yang tidak beriman dengan Dia yang meludah (di atasnya - di stela di bait suci) dengan tipu muslihat akan diberikan hukuman. Sekalipun akun ini fiktif kita dapat menduga bahwa tindakan semacam itu telah dituntut. Perampokan, pencurian dan pemadaman barang curian adalah pelanggaran kriminal, terutama perusakan, perusakan dan penjarahan makam: Seharusnya mumi perampok makam ke-25, yang mungkin dikubur hidup-hidup Setelah berkolaborasi selama empat tahun, Amenpenofer, seorang pembangun yang bekerja untuk Amenhotep, Imam Besar Amen-Re Sonter, dan tujuh pembangun lainnya, tukang kayu, petani dan tukang perahu, memutuskan untuk masuk ke piramida Sobekmesef. Dengan peralatan logam mereka, mereka memotong lorong ke ruang bawah tanah piramida, menyingkirkan semua rintangan dan mencapai sarkofagus ratu dan rajanya. Mereka membuka tutup dan peti mati kayu bersepuh emas, mengumpulkan masker wajah emas, perhiasan, jimat, dengan berat 160 deben (sekitar 14,5 kg) dan membakar sisa-sisanya. Mereka membagi jarahan menjadi delapan bagian dan mendayung kembali ke Sungai Nil oleh tukang perahu. Entah dia tidak bisa diam, kekayaannya yang tiba-tiba diperhatikan, atau mereka amati, Amenpenofer ditangkap oleh penjaga kota dan dibawa ke kantor Peser, pangeran kota. Dia menyogok juru tulis dengan dua puluh deben emasnya dan dibebaskan tanpa dikenai tuduhan. Sekembalinya, rekan-rekannya setuju untuk mendistribusikan kembali sisa emas yang tersisa. Mereka melanjutkan penggerebekan mereka sampai akhirnya mereka ditangkap. Dan mereka bukan satu-satunya yang melakukannya. Seperti pencuri yang berkomentar Banyak anak laki-laki orang ini merampok makam seperti kita dan tidak kalah bersalah dari kita. Perampok itu kembali dengan hakim investigasi ke piramida yang telah mereka rampok. Mereka sepakat untuk mengungkapkan semua nama geng tersebut kepada tuan mereka, Imam Besar Amin, namun ketika mereka dibawa ke hadapannya, hanya tiga dari delapan yang tersisa. Hakim meminta Imam Besar untuk menangkap para buronan tersebut. Ibu Amenpenofer diasingkan ke Nubia dan pembangun dirinya ditahan kembali beberapa bulan kemudian dan dibawa ke pengadilan. Bukan hanya orang biasa melakukan perampokan makam. Waktu sulit selama periode akhir Ramesside. Pemerintahannya berantakan dan gaji jarang dibayar tepat waktu, jika sama sekali. Pergolakan sosial dan perang saudara membawa serta kenaikan harga yang tajam. Tidak mengherankan jika para ahli Taurat dan imam ikut serta dalam redistribusi kekayaan ini. Salah satu geng tersebut termasuk seorang imam bernama Pen-un-heb, dan empat Bapa Suci Tuhan, Meri dan anaknya Peisem, Semdi dan Pehru. Mereka mulai dengan mencuri kalung emas dari patung Osiremire Sotepenre, yang setelah mencairkan mereka dengan empat deben dan enam kaleng emas. Meri yang lama membagi jarahan di antara mereka. Sekelompok pendeta, juru tulis dan gembala lainnya merampok Rumah Emas Sotepenre Osiremire. Pastor Kaw-karui dan empat rekannya kadang-kadang memindahkan beberapa emas yang mereka beli gandum di kota. Seorang gembala setelah mengancam para imam, menerima seekor banteng yang mereka beli dengan lima sendok emas (sekitar 45 gram). Seorang juru tulis, Seti-mose, yang mendengar pertengkaran mereka, memeras mereka dan memeras empat setengah kit emas. 6 Meskipun sumbernya sangat fasih ketika negara dan institusinya sebagai penggabungan Maat adalah korban tindak pidana, apalagi diketahui tentang apa yang terjadi jika pihak yang dirugikan adalah orang pribadi. Pembunuhan harus dilakukan, namun bukti tertulis tentang atau bahkan penyebutan pembunuhan secara literal sangat jarang terjadi. Paneb, seorang mandor di Deir el Medina, digambarkan telah membunuh seseorang, dan Pediese yang mungkin fiktif diserang dan meninggal dunia dan anggota keluarganya dibunuh. Namun ekses kekerasan ini tampaknya tidak dituntut apalagi dihukum oleh negara, meski pihak berwenang diberi tahu. Telah disarankan bahwa pembunuhan pribadi ditangani oleh permusuhan, meskipun ada sedikit bukti untuk itu daripada pembunuhan itu sendiri. Berbekal staf, polisi menjaga tempat-tempat umum, kadang-kadang memanfaatkan anjing atau, mungkin lebih jarang, dari monyet terlatih. Dari sebuah adegan pasar di makam Khnumhotep dan Niankhkhnum: Monyet berpegangan pada kaki pencuri dinasti ke-5 Necropoles memiliki penjaga mereka sendiri yang seharusnya mencegah perampokan makam. Ada beberapa periode waktu ketika mereka secara spektakuler tidak berhasil melakukan pekerjaan mereka. Seorang supervisor memukuli seorang pekerja Makam Menna Courtesy Jon Bodsworth, kutipan Pencegahan kejahatan dan penangkapan penjahat adalah tugas pejabat lokal dan pasukan polisi. Mereka membuka penyelidikan setelah keluhan oleh warga kepada Polemon, surat kabar Kerkeosiris, dari putri Tapentos Horos, di desa yang sama. Sebuah serangan dilakukan atas tempat tinggal saya oleh Arsinoe dan anaknya Phatres, yang pergi dengan kontrak yang berkaitan dengan rumah saya dan dokumen bisnis lainnya. Oleh karena itu saya sakit parah, karena menginginkan kebutuhan hidup dan tubuh. P. Tebtunis 52. fragmentaris 5 114 SM Mereka mengumpulkan petunjuk terhadap tersangka dengan menginterogasi mereka dan kenalan mereka, memeriksa catatan publik, mengatur pemetaan ulang dan menerapkan paksaan fisik, umumnya dalam bentuk pemukulan. Kemudian, seperti yang masih terjadi sekarang, sebagian besar kejahatan berasal dari varietas kecil, namun di masyarakat di mana kebanyakan orang hidup lebih dekat ke tepi kemiskinan, bahkan pencurian kecil mungkin merupakan masalah serius. Sebuah memorandum menggambarkan perampokan seperti yang dilakukan oleh pekerja Nakhu-m-Maut. Mereka masuk ke rumah saya, mencuri dua roti besar dan tiga kue, menumpahkan minyak saya, membuka tong sampah berisi jagung, mencuri dehu-cabai utara. Mereka pergi ke rumah di dermaga, mencuri setengah killesteis (sejenis roti asam) yang kemarin dipanggang, menumpahkan minyak. Pada bulan ketiga musim Shemu, hari ke 12, saat pesta mahkota raja Amin-hotep, l.h.s. Mereka pergi ke lumbung, mencuri tiga roti besar, delapan sabu-berisi buah Rohusu. Mereka mengeluarkan sebotol bir yang sedang mendingin di air, sementara aku tinggal di kamar ayahku. Ya Tuhanku, biarlah apapun yang telah dicuri diberikan kembali kepadaku. Publikasi Mesir Mariette G. Maspero, Etudes de mythologie et darcheacuteologie eacutegyptiennes vol. 3, 1898 Orang yang terhubung dengan baik atau mereka, yang permohonannya telah diabaikan oleh pemerintah setempat, mungkin mengajukan petisi kepada pejabat daerah atau bahkan raja sendiri kepada Raja Ptolemy dan Ratu Cleopatra, saudara perempuannya, dewa yang mencintai ibu, sapa. Dari Petesouchos anak Petos, kultivator mahkota dari desa Oxyrhyncha di divisi Polemon di nome Arsinoite. Saya tinggal di Kerkeosiris di rumah sakit tersebut, dan di sanalah saya berada di desa Oxyrhyncha di atas sebuah rumah yang diwarisi dari ayah saya, yang dimiliki olehnya selama masa hidupnya dan saya sendiri setelah dia meninggal hingga saat ini tanpa perselisihan . Tapi putri Stratonike Ptolemaios, penghuni Krokodilonpolis di nome tersebut, dengan nakal ingin melakukan pemerasan terhadap saya, datang bersama orang lain melawan rumah tersebut di atas, memaksa dia masuk sebelum ada keputusan yang diberikan dan. Di desa sekitar Rumah, masuk dan meletakkan klaim itu dengan tidak benar. Oleh karena itu, saya berdoa kepada Anda, dewa-dewa yang hebat, jika Anda merasa perlu, untuk mengirim petisi saya ke Menekrates, archisomatophylax (archbodyguard) dan strategi (komandan), sehingga dia dapat memesan Stratonike untuk tidak memaksakan jalan ke rumah tersebut, namun jika dia berpikir Dia memiliki keluhan, untuk mendapatkan ganti rugi dari saya dengan cara yang benar. Jika ini selesai, saya akan menerima bantuan. Selamat tinggal. P. Tebt. 771 5 Dari pertengahan abad kedua SM Setelah seorang tersangka interogasi yang rasa bersalahnya tampak jelas sampai diadili atau diperintahkan oleh polisi untuk menebus kesalahannya. Perampokan makam yang tercatat pertama terjadi pada tahun ke 14 pemerintahan Ramses IX. Gubernur nekropolis, pangeran Kher, yang berada di bawah komandonya mejeyiw (Medjay) dan seorang penjaga tubuh besar tidak melakukan apapun untuk mencegah penjarahan. Peser, pangeran kota, menulis sebuah memorandum tentang skandal ini ke panitia pejabat tinggi. Pew-re, pangeran Kher, dipaksa untuk menunjuk sebuah komisi penyelidikan (qnb.t aA.t sebuah pengadilan besar), yang menyimpulkan bahwa tidak semua klaim Pesers mendirikan kuburan Amenhotep I yang telah dilaporkan najis, Masih utuh Makam kerajaan lainnya, seperti Sobekmesefs, telah dirampok. Di lain usaha telah dilakukan untuk masuk tapi gagal. Kondisi di kuburan orang-orang non-kerajaan jauh lebih buruk. Semua kuburan telah dipecahkan, sarkofagus pecah dan barang berharga dicuri. Beberapa tersangka ditangkap dan protokol interogasi mereka oleh Pew-dikirim ke komisi. 7 Anggota komisi merasa tidak senang dengan hasil ini, karena mereka mengekspos kelalaian tugas mereka sendiri, dan yang lebih penting bagi mereka daripada menangkap penjahat, menyingkirkan peluit peluit, Peser, yang mengancam untuk memberi tahu firaun itu sendiri dan Minta mereka ditangkap Mereka memasang jebakan dengan mengirimnya Bekheru, seorang tukang logam, yang mengaku salah telah merampok Hunian para Penguasa. Pangeran Kher memulai penyelidikan menyusul tuduhan Pesers dari Bekheru, yang membuktikan ketidakberesan dari biaya Pesers. Komisi tersebut menerbitkan kesimpulannya. Kami telah menyelidiki tempat-tempat yang menurut pangeran kota dicemari oleh pekerja Rumah Osiremire-Myamun. Kami telah menemukan mereka utuh, tak tersentuh oleh tangan apapun. Kami menyimpulkan dan menjunjung tinggi bahwa semua dakwaan adalah kebohongan. Mereka memberhentikan pekerja yang menjadi anggota Kepala Nabi Amen-Re Sonter, salah satu tersangka utama Pesers, dan menuduh Peser sendiri melakukan kecurangan. Seiring perampokan terus berlanjut, komisi lain dibentuk oleh Ramses IX, yang terdiri dari wazir, royal majordomo, bendahara, dua pembawa kanopi, pembawa acara dan juru tulis. Mereka menginterogasi gembala Bukhef, yang mengungkapkan nama enam kaki tangan setelah beberapa orang berbicara. Ini tidak memuaskan komisi yang telah dia cambuk. Ketika dia menjawab pertanyaan mereka tentang bagaimana mereka memasuki kuburan dengan mengklaim bahwa barang itu telah dipecah sebelumnya, dia dipukuli lagi sampai dia berjanji untuk mengungkapkan semuanya. Tiga belas orang lainnya disebutkan, yang kemudian ditangkap dan diinterogasi. Bantuan menunjukkan tahanan terikat pada tiang dan dicambuk. Ada tiga macam pemukulan yang digunakan untuk mencapai pengakuan, (bejena, nejena dan menini). Pada umumnya punggung yang dipukuli, tapi kaki dan lengan dicambuk juga. Cara persuasi lainnya adalah ancaman untuk diasingkan ke Nubia, memiliki bagian tubuh yang diamputasi atau disiksa di atas kayu. Terkadang penyelidikan tidak mengarah pada pengadilan yang tepat di pengadilan, namun juga untuk melakukan likuidasi. Selama dinasti ke-21 Jenderal Piankh mengirim perintah kepada agennya Payshuuben: Saya telah mencatat semua hal yang Anda tulis. Perihal tuduhan Anda mengenai masalah kedua polisi ini berkata, Mereka mengucapkan dakwaan ini, bergabunglah dengan Nodjme dan juru tulis Tjaroy juga dan kirim kabar dan minta kedua polisi ini dibawa ke rumah saya dan naik ke dasar tuntutan mereka. Dalam waktu singkat dan membunuh mereka dan melemparkan mereka ke dalam air pada malam hari - tapi jangan biarkan siapa pun di negeri ini mencari tahu tentang mereka EF Wente, Surat dari Pengadilan Mesir Kuno, yang diwakili oleh Maat 42. Dewi tatanan dunia, bertumpu pada dewa-dewa dan imanen dan retributif, baik di sini-setelah 33 seperti di dunia ini. Firaun sebagai dewa hidup adalah sumber dan pelaksana keadilan 43. Para wazir, menggantikan para raja sebagai hakim kepala, mengenakan gelar Imam Maat, Hm-nTr-MAa.t. Seperti juga banyak pejabat tinggi lainnya. Atas dasar beberapa patung Zaman Akhir pejabat tinggi mengenakan kalung dengan jimat Maat. 50 dan sebuah bagian di Perpustakaan Bersejarah Diodorus. 57 telah disarankan bahwa liontin dewi keadilan adalah semacam lencana jabatan. 50 Alat administratif untuk mencapai keadilan di antara manusia adalah undang-undang dan peraturan (hp.w). Makam Maat Nefertari Sumber gambar: Jon Bodsworth Re: tubuhmu adalah tubuhnya. Tidak ada penguasa seperti Anda, (karena) Anda unik, seperti anak Osiris, Anda telah mencapai seperti disainnya Isis tidak mencintai seorang raja sejak Re, kecuali Anda dan anak laki-lakinya lebih besar daripada apa yang telah Anda lakukan. Daripada yang dia lakukan saat dia memerintah setelah Osiris. Hukum tanah berlanjut sesuai posisinya. Dari sebuah pidato ke Ramses II James Henry Menyusui Rekaman Kuno Mesir Bagian Ketiga, sekte 270 Amenkhau, seorang rakyat jelata, mengungkapkan prinsip ini dengan kata-kata yang tidak terlalu mulia dalam wasiatnya, walaupun ini mungkin tidak didasarkan pada keputusan firaun tertentu tetapi juga mengenai hukum adat , Diidentikkan dengan Maat dan kehendak Firaun: Karena Firaun telah mengatakan: Masing-masing harus melakukan apa yang dia inginkan dengan propertinya. Beberapa dari kekuatan ini, yudisial dan bahkan kadang-kadang legislatif, firaun didelegasikan kepada wakil mereka, wazir dan hakim mereka, yang menjalankannya sebagai bagian dari fungsi administratif resmi mereka. Rupanya, hukum Mesir adalah common law, berdasarkan preseden adat dan yudisial 23. Menerapkan undang-undang baru atau mengubah yang lama merupakan bagian dari hak prerogatif fir'aun. Keputusan-keputusan kerajaan ini tampaknya sering merupakan tanggapan para raja untuk diajukan oleh orang atau institusi yang memiliki keluhan. Kode hukum seperti Kode Hukum Demotik Hermopolis West adalah pedoman daripada kompilasi hukum dalam pengertian modern. Mereka dikumpulkan oleh para imam dan disimpan di arsip mereka. Buku-buku undang-undang, gulungan kulit, yang kadang-kadang digunakan untuk dokumen resmi dan bukan papirus yang kurang tahan lama, tampaknya digunakan sehari-hari. Adapun setiap tindakan pejabat ini (yaitu Rekhmire), wazir saat mendengar di aula wazir, dia Duduk di atas kursi, dengan permadani di atas lantai, dan sebuah alas di atasnya, bantalan di bawah punggungnya, sebuah bantalan di bawah kakinya, a. Di atasnya, dan tongkat di tangannya, 40 kulitnya harus terbuka di hadapannya. Dari prasasti makam wali Rekhmire (dinasti ke 18) James Henry Menyusui Rekaman Kuno Mesir Bagian Tiga, sekte 675 Dalam prasasti yang sama, wazir juga didesak untuk mendengarkan setiap pemohon menurut undang-undang ini yang ada di tangannya. Di bawah Ptolemy kedua, tradisi hukum Yunani diperkenalkan dan kasus diputuskan sesuai dengan bahasa di mana mereka didengar. Wanita, yang disukai oleh tradisi Mesir yang memberi mereka lebih banyak hak dan kebebasan daripada kebiasaan Yunani yang membatasi, lebih baik menurut Demotik daripada hukum Yunani. Ptolemy II mengintegrasikan terjemahan bahasa Yunani dari Taurat Yahudi ke dalam kode resmi, yang berlaku untuk orang-orang Yahudi. Selama Kerajaan Lama nampaknya tidak ada hakim profesional. Kasus diadili di hadapan mahkamah para juru tulis dan imam yang ditunjuk untuk tujuan tersebut, dengan pejabat tinggi - kadang-kadang satu atau bahkan kedua wazir yang memimpin. Sepanjang sejarah firaun, sistem peradilan tetap menjadi bagian eksekutif dan banyak jabatan resmi memiliki aspek eksekutif dan yudikatif. Keagungannya menunjukku Hakim atas Hierakonpolis. Karena hatinya lebih penuh denganku dibandingkan dengan hamba-hambanya lainnya. Saya mendengarkan hal-hal, sendirian dengan hakim ketua, wazir, tentang setiap rahasia dan setiap kasus yang terkait dengan nama raja, dengan harem kerajaan dan 6 rumah besar. Judul hakim sangat penting bagi pemegangnya. Di makam Mehu, seorang hakim dinasti kelima, prasasti menggambarkannya sebagai zAb (hakim), Imam Maat, Dewi Kebenaran, Yang Tertua dari Aula dan Sekretaris Keputusan Rahasia Pengadilan Penangkapan Agung. Hakim Mehu dinasti ke 5 Sumber: Buletin Museum Seni Rupa, Boston, Nomor 304, 1958 Menilai menjadi sebuah profesi 21 dan serupa dengan profesi lain di Mesir, menjalankan hukum berjalan dalam keluarga. Ayahnya diikuti oleh anak laki-laki kecuali sesuatu yang luar biasa terjadi. Pengawas meja penguasa, Sebek, sudah meninggal. Putranya, sang hakim Nemu. Anaknya, hakim Kirdis. Istrinya, para raja ornamen Yusni. Istrinya Nubyiti. (Anaknya) Nubenib. Saudaranya, hakim Khnummose. Putranya, hakim Bebiseneb. Putranya, hakim Khnum. Putranya, hakim Merikhnum. Putranya, hakim Hor. Dari stadion Sebek, Abydos, sekitar Dinasti ke-12, Thomas George Allen: Stelae Mesir di Museum Sejarah Alam, 1936 Hakim, seperti pejabat lainnya, hanya bisa bersikap tidak memihak jika mereka tidak bergantung secara ekonomi pada siapapun. Adalah tugas raja untuk memastikan bahwa mereka tidak menjadi orang yang korup: Jadikan besar agung Anda, agar mereka dapat menjalankan hukum Anda orang yang kaya di rumahnya tidak akan sepihak, karena siapa yang tidak kekurangan adalah pemilik Harta benda orang miskin tidak berbicara benar-benar, dan orang yang berkata, Apakah itu saya miliki, tidak langsung dia satu sisi terhadap pemilik penghargaan. Jalan menuju semacam keadilan terkadang panjang dan sulit. Penyuapan atau sanjungan bisa mempengaruhi hakim dan mengganti argumentasi hukum yang baik. Cerita fiktif tentang Petani Elofull menggambarkan bagaimana Hunanup, seorang petani, membawa sebuah keluhan terhadap Djehuti-nekht. Kasusnya agak lemah karena dia tidak memiliki saksi, jadi dia berusaha untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan hakim Meruitensi: Kepala pelayan, Tuanku, Anda yang terbesar dari yang agung, Anda adalah panduan dari semua hal yang tidak dan yang mana. Saat Anda memulai lautan kebenaran, Anda mungkin akan berlayar di atasnya, maka janganlah. Lepaskan layarmu, maka kapalmu tidak akan tetap berpuasa, maka tidak ada kemalangan yang terjadi pada tiangmu maka percikanmu tidak akan pecah, maka jangan sampai terdampar - jika kamu cepat kandas, ombak tidak akan pecah. Anda, maka Anda tidak akan merasakan ketidakmurnian sungai, maka Anda tidak akan melihat wajah ketakutan, ikan pemalu akan datang kepada Anda, dan Anda akan menangkap burung-burung gemuk. Karena kamu adalah ayah dari anak yatim, suami dari janda, saudara laki-laki dari kesepian, pakaian orang yang tidak punya ibu. Izinkanlah saya menempatkan nama Anda di negeri ini lebih tinggi dari semua hukum yang baik: Anda membimbing tanpa ketamakan, Anda hebat yang bebas dari kekejian, yang menghancurkan tipu daya, yang menciptakan kebenaran. Lemparkan kejahatan ke tanah. Saya akan berbicara mendengar saya. Apakah keadilan, ya pujianmu, yang dipuji oleh orang memuji. Lepaskan penindasan saya: lihatlah, saya memiliki bobot yang berat untuk dibawa melihat, saya terganggu dengan jiwa memeriksa saya, saya dalam kesedihan. Dari Kisah Takhta Suci Dari: George A. Barton, Arkeologi dan Alkitab Delapan kali dia mengulangi permohonannya yang obyektif sebelum penghakiman diberikan demi kebaikannya atau lebih tepatnya keagungan-Nya mengatakan, Pass menghukum diri sendiri anak kesayangan saya, yang sepertinya, Hunanup melakukannya, membantu dirinya untuk menjadi bagian dari kawasan Djehuti-nekhts. Mendapatkan keadilan seringkali sulit. Dan itu jarang murah. Ada usaha untuk memberikan kelegaan kepada mereka yang hampir tidak dapat menolong diri mereka sendiri, namun pengeluaran tersebut memang membebani beberapa orang: Amun, sampaikan telinganya ke pengadilan yang kesepian, dia miskin, dia tidak kaya Karena pengadilan memeras darinya. : Perak dan emas untuk para panitera, Pakaian untuk para hadirin Mungkinkah Amun tampil sebagai wazir, Agar orang miskin bebaskan Mungkin orang miskin tampil sebagai orang yang dibenarkan, Dan ingin melampaui kekayaan P. Anastasi II.8,5-9,1 M Lichtheim Teks Kuno Mesir. Vol. II, hal.111 Raja, atau dalam kehidupan biasa dia berdiri, wazir, berada di puncak hirarki peradilan. Ada pengadilan di tingkat yang berbeda, yang tertinggi adalah Enam Rumah Besar dengan wazir yang membawa gelar Kepala Enam Rumah Agung. Kepala enam pengadilan di pengadilan, menghakimi orang-orang dan penduduknya, dan mendengar penyebab siapa yang besar datang membungkuk, dan seluruh tanah, rawan pada perut. Tablet komando, dinasti ke 11 James Henry Menyusui Rekaman Kuno Mesir Bagian Pertama, sekte 445 Oleh Kerajaan Baru Enam Rumah Agung yang komposisinya berubah sedikit, telah diganti oleh pengadilan baru yang anggotanya sering berubah, dan Kepala Enam Pengadilan Sedikit lebih dari sekedar judul kosong Tribunal Tiga Puluh, mabA.yt. Di satu sisi ada sebuah pengadilan di alam semesta yang diciptakan oleh Re, Kemudian Re berbicara kepada Dia yang ada di dalam Waktu (yaitu yang bertanggung jawab): Menerima tombak, warisan umat manusia Itulah masuknya Pengadilan Dari Tiga Puluh oleh Dia yang ada di Waktu-Nya. PNu (Kitab Orang Mati) 52 Dalam Pengakuan Negatif dalam satu papirus, pNu, almarhum mengklaim sebelum Entraildourer yang termasuk dalam Tribunal of the Thirty. Bahwa dia tidak menipu selama pengukuran tanah. Di lain, pMaiherperi, bahwa dia tidak mempraktekkan riba dengan gandum. 51 Itu juga merupakan pengadilan dari beberapa konsekuensi di dunia ini sampai akhir sejarah firaun. Amenemope merekomendasikan Instruksinya. Katakan yang sebenarnya di hadapan pejabat tinggi. Sehingga dia tidak akan merebut orangmu. Pagi hari setelah, ketika Anda akan mendekati dia, dia akan setuju dengan semua kata-kata Anda. Dia akan menyebutkan kesaksian Anda di Residence sebelum pengadilan Thirty, sehingga akan mempertimbangkannya untuk kedua kalinya. PbM EA 10474, Petunjuk Amenemope (baris 20.18) 53 Hakim dan pejabat, bahkan yang paling rendah di antara mereka, banyak menghormat orang Mesir biasa, karena mereka memiliki kekuatan untuk menentukan nasib mereka, apakah itu pemukulan atau Penyitaan properti mereka Sementara banyak hakim mencoba bertindak sesuai sila moral Lupakan untuk tidak menilai keadilan. Ini adalah kekejian dari dewa untuk menunjukkan keberpihakan. Inilah ajarannya. Oleh karena itu, apakah Anda sesuai dengan itu. Lihatlah dia yang kamu kenal seperti dia yang tidak mengenalmu dan dia yang berada di dekat raja seperti dia yang jauh dari rumahnya. Lihatlah, seorang pangeran yang melakukan ini, dia akan bertahan di sini di tempat ini. Petunjuk Rekhmire Dari Kebijaksanaan Mesir Kuno oleh Joseph Kaster. Dan sebagian besar mengaku telah melakukan apa yang orang akan puji, apa yang benar di mata para dewa. Saya memberi roti kepada orang yang kelaparan, saya puas dengan jiwa tanpa pamrih. Stela Mortah dari Ptahmose cukup sedikit, terutama selama periode kerusuhan dan ketidakpastian sipil, koruptor 30. Horemheb melihat ini dengan jelas: Ketahuilah bahwa mereka tidak akan menunjukkan belas kasihan dan berbelas kasih pada hari mereka akan menghakimi orang miskin. Dia sadar bahwa ahli Taurat dan pemungut cukai pada zamannya menindas rakyat, merampok keduanya dan perbendaharaan kerajaan. Dan ketika orang-orang mengajukan banding ke pengadilan, ini sering kali disiksa dan disuap untuk membebaskan orang yang bersalah dan mengutuk orang yang tidak bersalah. Beberapa tindakan ketat Horemhebs ditujukan terhadap petugas yang tidak jujur ​​ini: Nada hakim yang dihukum diputus dan dikirim ke Tharu (Sile) 10. Di bawah Ramses III, nasib yang sama menimpa dua pejabat yang telah menerima instruksi raja dan dua petugas yang mungkin bertanggung jawab atas penjara tersebut. Mereka terkait dengan wanita yang dituduh berpartisipasi dalam Konspirasi Harem membuat rumah bir. I.e. berpesta Kepala suku Butler tidak tahan menerima hidung dan telinga yang terputus dan bunuh diri 16. Tampaknya usaha itu dilakukan pada masa pemerintahan Seti untuk melindungi tidak hanya kuil yang kaya tetapi juga orang miskin sebagai cerita yang sebagian masih ada mengenai petani Menet-hamlekh membuktikannya. Dari penemuan yang dilakukan di Deir el Medine, kita tahu bahwa ada juga pengadilan pekerja atau warga yang mirip dengan juri, di mana mandor, perajin, juru tulis dan pekerja duduk dalam penilaian atas rekan-rekan mereka setidaknya dari Kerajaan Baru dan seterusnya. Kenbet ini (qnbt) umumnya ditangani dengan pelanggaran ringan 18. Dalam kasus yang rumit dimana sebuah keputusan tidak dapat dicapai, nubuat diajukan banding. Hukuman yang bisa dilakukan pengadilan-pengadilan ini berkisar dari denda sampai pemukulan dan mungkin yang terburuk dari sudut pandang pelaku, dengan menghapus namanya dari kuburan yang sedang digarapnya. Dengan demikian dia kehilangan pengharapannya akan kehidupan kekal yang bergantung pada keberlangsungan namanya. 4 Perbedaan antara administrasi hukum perdata dan pidana sangat penting. Dalam kasus pidana, di mana negara bagian adalah jaksa penuntut, tampaknya ada anggapan awal tentang kesalahan, dan pengadilan dilakukan sesuai dengan itu 27. Kejahatan terhadap negara, raja, dewa-dewa, dan terhadap orang tersebut, seperti pembunuhan dan kerusakan fisik, dituntut oleh negara, sementara korban perampokan, pencurian, dan agresi seksual tampaknya harus membawa kasus mereka ke pengadilan sendiri. . Obsesi Mesir untuk menyimpan catatan seringkali berguna bagi penjahat. Seseorang tidak bisa memiliki budak tanpa mendaftarkan mereka kepada pihak berwenang. Masalah hakim adalah menemukan sumber uangnya. Seorang penduduk Thebes, Ari-Nofer ditanya: Apa pendapat Anda tentang perak yang dibawa oleh istri Santiesi Anda ke rumah. Dia menjawab: Saya tidak melihatnya. Pertanyaan Bagaimana para budak membeli yang ada bersamanya dia menjawab dengan saya tidak melihat perak yang dengannya dia membayar harganya. Saat dia sedang dalam perjalanan, mereka bersamanya. Dia menjelaskan sumber perak yang ditinggalkan oleh Penhesi dengan Sobekmesef dengan mengatakan bahwa saya mendapatkannya dengan jelai selama tahun hyaenas, saat ada kelaparan. Dan tidak salah melakukan di pihaknya bisa dibuktikan. Pemukulan, tentu penjahat umum, adalah cara yang dicoba dan terbukti untuk memunculkan jika bukan kebenaran, setidaknya pengakuan. Amenpenofer, perampok kuburan Kerajaan Baru, dipukuli sampai dia mengaku telah melakukan perampokan lebih lanjut, di antaranya di makam Nabi Ketiga Allah dengan empat rekan yang sebelumnya tidak dikenal oleh pihak berwenang. Ancaman pemukulan atau mutilasi terkadang diharapkan bisa mencegah saksi salah. Pengadilan hakim mengatakan kepada wanita Iry-nofret: Ambillah sumpah Tuhan dengan kata-kata: Haruskah saksi dibawa menghadap saya bahwa barang apa pun milik wanita tersebut. Bak-Mut di dalam perak yang kuberikan untuk pelayan ini dan aku menyembunyikannya, aku akan (bertanggung jawab) sampai 100 pukulan, sementara aku kehilangan dia. . Dan mereka mengambil sumpah Tuhan serta sumpah tuhan, dengan kata-kata: Kami akan berbicara dengan jujur ​​bahwa kita tidak akan berbicara salah. Jika kita berbicara salah, pelayan akan diambil dari kita. Teks Timur Dekat Kuno Berkaitan dengan Perjanjian Lama Diterjemahkan oleh John A. Wilson ed. Oleh James B. Pritchard Pekerja lapangan Pay-Kharu, anak dari Pesh-nemeh, dibawa. Dia diperiksa dengan memukul tongkat dan kakinya serta tangan dipelintir. Dia diberi sumpah oleh Penguasa karena sakit karena mutilasi untuk tidak berbicara dusta. Peramal Besar-Perampokan Dinasti Mesir Twentieth Diterjemahkan oleh Thomas Eric Peet Bahkan saksi yang tidak dituduh melakukan kesalahan pun kadang dipukuli. Nesuamon, seorang imam, dan Wenpehti, kedua anak laki-laki yang dituduh sebagai perampok makam dan pada saat kejahatan tersebut diajukan kedua anak tersebut, diperiksa dengan memukuli dengan sebuah tongkat dan Wenpehti, yang hanyalah seorang penenun, menerima seekor bastinado untuk berdiri dan tangannya 19 . Pengakuan itu merupakan dasar keyakinan. Bukti sungguhan, saksi dan penyiksaan adalah sarana untuk mencapai pengakuan ini. Ketika terdakwa terlepas dari segala sesuatu yang menolak untuk mengakuinya, terkadang dia diberi kesempatan untuk meminta kesaksian berbicara untuknya, atau seperti yang jarang terjadi, dia dibebaskan. Seorang pria bernama Amenkhau yang dituduh telah melakukan perampokan di nekropolis dengan teguh menolak mengakui kesalahan apapun yang belum pernah saya lihat. Apapun yang pernah kamu lihat dari mulutku. Dia ditemukan tidak bersalah dan dibebaskan. Hori, seorang pembawa standar dan tampaknya salah satu hakim di pengadilan Konspirasi Harem di bawah Ramses III, diadili karena memiliki hubungan dengan terdakwa. Dia dipecat karena hukuman tidak dihukum mati dan tetap di jabatannya. Dalam catatannya ia terus diberi julukan penjahat yang agung. Tapi sepertinya ini sama dengan yang modern yang dituduh 17. Penilaian berdasarkan bukti tertulis dan lisan 18. Dokumen umumnya disusun oleh juru tulis resmi dan nama-nama mereka yang menyaksikan penandatanganan ditambahkan. Saksi memberikan kesaksian di bawah sumpah 37. Hakim diharapkan tidak memihak, jangan terlalu parah atau terlalu lunak: Waspadalah terhadap apa yang dikatakan tentang wali Kheti. Dikatakan bahwa dia mendiskriminasikan beberapa orang kerabatnya sendiri untuk mendukung orang asing, karena ketakutan jangan sampai dikatakan bahwa dia lebih menyukai kerabatnya secara tidak jujur. Ketika salah satu dari mereka mengajukan banding atas penghakiman yang dia pikir membuatnya, dia bertahan dalam diskriminasinya. Nah, itu lebih dari sekedar keadilan. Peraturan yang diajukan kepada wali Rekhmire Semoga mereka tidak memiliki prasangka dan mendengarkan semua yang harus diadili oleh pemohon dan membuat alasan untuk penilaian mereka diketahui: Jangan melewati pemohon tanpa berkenaan dengan pidatonya. Jika ada pemohon yang akan mengajukan banding kepada Anda, menjadi orang yang ucapannya bukan apa yang dikatakan (yaitu orang yang telah berbicara dengan tidak benar), memecatnya setelah membiarkan dia mendengarnya karena Anda memecatnya. Peraturan yang diberikan kepada wali Rekhmire Pengacara profesional yang mewakili orang biasa dengan mengatakan bahwa mereka tidak diketahui. Kelompok-kelompok penggugat, janda, yatim piatu dan pemalu tertentu, dianggap perlu mendapat perlindungan dan pertimbangan khusus dari pengadilan karena mereka dianggap tidak mampu untuk melihat dengan benar setelah kepentingan mereka sendiri 24. Saya telah menyelamatkan yang takut dari kekerasan. Regulation laid upon the vizier Rekhmire (I was) kind to the great and to() the little, one who turned his face towards the fearful, when his case was heard and his witnesses appeared and gave evidence. Harwa, chief of domain under Amenirdis Cases should be adjudged swiftly Make no delay at all in justice, the law of which you know. Regulation laid upon the vizier Rekhmire There was also the (perhaps a bit cynical) acceptance of the fact that justice cannot always be done, but an aggrieved person should have his say (and his moment of glory) at least. A petitioner desires his saying be regarded rather than the hearing of that on account of which he has come. Regulation laid upon the vizier Rekhmire Ancient Egyptians were quite a quarrelsome lot. Records of cases have been found where every possible aspect of life was disputed. Frequent bones of contention were the rights to land, vital in a rural society, and inheritances were often fought over, as they still are today. At times private referees rather than official judges adjudicated in civil disputes. A 4th century prenuptial agreement speaks of three mutually agreed upon men who were to decide in the case of a dispute between the husband and the wife. During the New Kingdom the priesthood arrogated to themselves some of the judicial powers belonging to the royal administration. This took the form of oracles with the statue of the god choosing between two alternative papyri, as in the case of a supervisor accused of embezzlement. O Amon-Re, king of gods, my good lord it is said that there are no matters which should be investigated in the case of Thutmose, triumphant 38 . son of Sudiamon, triumphant, the major-domo and O Amon-Re, king of gods, my good lord it is said that there are matters which should be investigated in the case of Thutmose, triumphant, son of Sudiamon, triumphant, the major-domo Karnak pylon inscription J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Four, sect 672 The two papyri were placed in front of Amens statue, which twice pointed out one of them, thus acquitting Thutmose, who was reinstated and given further honours. The choice of the god may have been made manifest by the statue recoiling a few steps if the answere was negative, or by advancing if affirmative. Other ways have been proposed based on the word used, hnn . interpreted as inclining the head. Typically the questions - or statements to be approved of - put to oracles were probably even more succinct. Ostraca have been found containing simple questions, many of which were personal rather than part of a judicial inquiry: Are they true, those things Will Seti be appointed priest Is it him who has stolen this mat Were they stolen by the people of the royal tomb Jaroslav Cerny, Questions addresseacutees aux oracles . BIFAO 35 (1935), p.41ff. Decisions of one oracle could be appealed against before another. This led Ahmose II, who had been a rebellious lad in his youth to have doubts as to the competence of some gods oracles at least: . when finally he (i.e. Ahmose II) became king he did as follows: as many of the gods as had absolved him and pronounced him not to be a thief, to their temples he paid no regard, nor gave anything for the further adornment of them, nor even visited them to offer sacrifice, considering them to be worth nothing and to possess lying Oracles but as many as had convicted him of being a thief, to these he paid very great regard, considering them to be truly gods, and to present Oracles which did not lie. During the Graeco-Roman period the god was generally addressed in a more elaborate way, including a salutation, the question, and a concluding supplication such as Reveal it to me. Unless it was a public holiday on which the god emerged from his temple, access to the oracle was difficult as laymen were not allowed inside the sanctuaries. In the late New Kingdom a petitioner was in a hurry to have an issue decided upon, but encountered obstacles when he tried to get himself heard: When I was looking for you (the god) to tell you some affairs of mine, you happened to be concealed in your holy of holies, and there was nobody having access to it to send in to you. Now, as I was waiting, I encountered Hori, this scribe of the temple of Usermare-miamon (Ramesses IIIs mortuary temple), and he said to me, I have access. So I am sending him in to you. P. Nevill, 20th dynasty Translated by E. Wente in E. S. Meltzer ed. Letters from Ancient Egypt . Scholars Press Atlanta, Georgia, 1990, p.219 The petitioner continued complaining that the business of others had been dealt with, but that it seemed to him as if the god were confined in the netherworld for a million years. Unlike other nations in the Near East, Egypt appears not to have known trials by ordeal, in which the accused in a criminal trial or the contestants in a civil litigation underwent an ordeal (often held in a river), the winner of which was supposed to be favoured by the gods and therefore in the right. Some have claimed that the contests in the myth of the Contendings of Horus and Seth in which the two gods are pitted against each other in order to decide who should succeed Osiris as ruler over Egypt, point to the possibility of there having existed trials by ordeal in prehistoric times. Punishment by beating Source: T.G.H. James Pharaos Volk Just as their gods in the Afterlife 31 were weighing the souls of the dead and meting out eternal justice 26 . the Egyptians dealt quite pitilessly with criminals in this life too. Officials who had been remiss in their duties were removed. Teti was nomarch of Coptos and was informed against by the lay priests of Min An evil thing is about to happen to this temple. Foes have been stirred up by, a curse to his name Teti, son of Minhotep. Cause him to be deposed from the temple of my father, Min cause him to be cast out of his temple office, from son to son, and heir to heir . upon the earth take away his bread, his food, and his joints of meat. His name shall not be remembered in this temple, according as it is done toward one like him. From the Coptos Decree (2nd Intermediate Period) James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt Part One, sect 777f Officials who might plead for leniency for Teti were threatened with the impounding of their own belongings. Syrians tied to a pillory Late Period Source: copy Georges Poncet Museacutee du Louvre 20 Other crimes were punished with restitution of stolen property, fines, confiscation, imprisonment 14 . forced labour, beatings, mutilation, banishment, or death. List of property stolen by the servant of the charioteer Pakhary. 1 wash-basin of bronze amounting to 20 deben, making a penalty of 40 deben 1 vessel of bronze amounting to 6 deben, making a penalty of 18 deben 1 spittoon of bronze amounting to 6 deben, making a penalty of 18 deben 1 vessel of bronze amounting to 3 12 deben, making a penalty of 10 12 deben 1 vessel of bronze amounting to 1 deben, making a penalty of 3 deben 2 garments of fine Upper Egyptian linen of first quality, making a penalty of 6 2 garments of fine Upper Egyptian linen, making a penalty of 6 1 shirt of fine Upper Egyptian linen, cast off, making a penalty of 3 17 hunks of yarn, making a penalty of 51 1. making a penalty of 3. Restitution of, and Penalty attaching to, Stolen Property in Ramesside Times Published by Jaroslav Ocernoy, 1937 The peace treaty between Ramses II and the Hittite king Hattusili III specifically protected extradited persons from some punishments: let no injury be done to his eyes, to his ears, to his mouth, nor to his feet. It is even possible that relatives were at times held responsible for the deeds of an individual the same treaty forbids any reprisals against family members: Let not his house be injured, nor his wives, nor his children. The harsher punishments were only meted out by the vizier or the king himself. In a tale about magic Khufu. who had heard that someone called Djedi knew how to rejoin a severed head . said, Let a criminal who is in gaol be brought to me and his sentence be executed in order to satisfy his curiosity. If Djedi could not rejoin the head, no harm would have been done, as the criminals sentence had been executed 25 . In his Great Edict Horemheb laid down some severe penalties in an attempt to curb official corruption. Anybody guilty of preventing the free traffic on the Nile for instance was to have his nose cut off and be exiled to Tharu, called Rhinocolura by the Greeks for this reason, a town in the Sinai desert on the shores of the Mediterranean. The theft of hides was punishable by 100 blows and five open wounds. This was also the penalty for military men guilty of extortion from the common people. Corrupt magistrates were guilty of a great crime of death. 10 Seti I tried to prevent officials from requesting illegal corveacutee work from the staff at his temple at Abydos and confiscating the trading goods from Nubia carried on the Nile. They were to be given 100 lashes, had to return the stolen goods and pay fines worth a hundred times the amount of their theft. Disfigurement, like the cutting off of ears, and enslavement were also imposed. The death penalty was imposed for crimes against the state, i.e. the king and the divine order he stood for the conspirators against Ramses III were consequently dealt with harshly. Some were executed, othersndashaccording to the records ndashwere forced to commit suicide, and some were mutilated. And they set him (Paibekkamen, the major-domo) in the presence of the great officials of the place of examination and they examined his crimes and found that he had committed them. And his crimes took hold of him, and the officials who examined him caused his punishment to cleave to him. Executions took the form of impalement, giving on top of the stake . a slow and painful death. 44 It seems that in normal times the pharaoh was informed of death, and possibly also of lesser, sentences, as Ramses III gave specific orders to the court trying the conspirators to execute punishments without referring to him. Death sentences were rare in Egypt compared with other ancient societies 39 . For the killing of another person the death penalty was deemed appropriate, but at times it was apparently punished by a lesser sentence. Seemingly no distinction was made between premeditated murder and unpremeditated manslaughter. Then the High Priest of Amon, Menkheperre triumphant, went to the great god, saying: As for any person, of whom they shall report before thee, saying, A slayer of living people . (is he) thou shalt destroy him, thou shalt slay him. Then the great god nodded exceedingly, exceedingly. Stela of the Banishment 21st dynasty Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . part IV sect658 Tax evasion was of serious concern to the authorities as were attempts to dodge the compulsory corveacutee work, 55 on which the proper flow of the Nile waters and the upkeep of the temples and palaces depended. 8 It was Amasis too who established the law that every year each one of the Egyptians should declare to the ruler of his district, from what source he got his livelihood, and if any man did not do this or did not make declaration of an honest way of living, he should be punished with death. Herodotus, Histories II 12 Project Gutenberg Burning, which may have been used to punish the most serious offences such as crimes against state and temple institutions, 45 would have had implications for the eternal life of the criminal. Without a body the deceased could not pass the tests before him and achieve eternal life. Similarly, impalement may have bound ba and shadow of the deceased to the ground of execution, making them unable to follow the body, when it was disposed of 39 . Sometimes posthumous punishment 32 was meted out as in the case of King Teti s bodyguards who, according to Manetho, assassinated the pharaoh. Grave inscriptions and names were erased, in some representations the noses and feet were destroyed, and Tetis chief armourer was removed from his tomb and replaced by a female bodyguard. The loss of his grave might befall a convicted criminal. According to the The Loyalist Instructions while those who were in the kings good graces would be well provided spirits, there would be no tomb for anyone who rebels against His Majesty, and his corpse shall be cast to the waters. In a 5th dynasty relief at Abusir the feet and arms of the bearers of offerings were hacked out, probably to prevent them from carrying sustenance to the deceased. 59 Pentawer, the son of Ramses III, who was involved in a harem conspiracy was, according to Judicial Turin Papyrus, forced to take his own life. Scientists think that they have identified his corpse and do not exclude the possibility that he was strangled. His corpse was not mummified but simply wrapped in a goatskin, which would have caused him all sorts of problems in the after life. 58 Retribution wasnt harsh - or considered to be so - all the time. According to Herodotus Shabaka s rule was just and the punishments he imposed measured The Ethiopian was king over Egypt for fifty years, during which he performed deeds as follows:--whenever any man of the Egyptians committed any transgression, he would never put him to death, but he gave sentence upon each man according to the greatness of the wrong-doing, appointing them to work at throwing up an embankment before that city from whence each man came of those who committed wrong. Not many examples of royal clemency during the early periods of Egyptian history have come down to us, and the little evidence we have is mostly indirect or literary: Sinuhe received a pardon and was allowed to return home from exile. When he reached the Horus Road, a region on the eastern border, he was picked up by a troop of soldiers who took him by ship to Itjtawy. Sinuhe prostrated himself in front of his king, who made a remark about Sinuhes changed appearance attributing it to his having lived among Asiatics. After songs of praise had been sung invoking the Golden One. Goddess of Joy, the plea was uttered that Sinuhe might be forgiven as he had committed his deed without forethought. Sinuhe left the palace a free man, and lived in the house the king had given him. 9 Nebkheperure-Intef, one of the ephemeral Second Intermediate Period kings, vented his wrath against the nomarch Teti accused of plotting against him in his Coptos Decree As for any king or any ruler, who shall be merciful to him, he shall not receive the white crown, he shall not wear the red crown, he shall not sit upon the Horus throne of the living, the two patron goddesses shall not be gracious to him as their beloved. From the Coptos Decree of Nebkheperure-Intef (2nd Intermediate Period) James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt Part Two, sect 779 He also threatened anybody appealing for mercy for Teti with dire consequences. Given the vindictiveness of this inscription one wonders whether Teti managed to escape with his life. But the verbal virulence may have been caused by the fear that a successor or competitor might be quite likely to pardon the rebel. In the early Macedonian-Greek period a certain Psenamunis was sentenced to death and Absenhy writes to Kolanthion and begs him to appeal to the oracle of Amen at Ptolemais on his behalf: Absenhy (sends) greetings to Kolanthion there before Pshai-hu, the Agathos Daimon (protective deity) of Ptolemais. Leon sends many greetings to you. Psenamunis, son of Tryphon, is incarcerated in prison. For many days he has been beaten on hands and feet. They say: Today or tomorrow they will come to kill him. We have not ascertained if he is already dead or if he is still alive. Perform the cult service and ask a question concerning him before (the oracle of) Amen, as follows: Will he escape the circumstances he is in Will they be far from him (i.e. will he be pardoned) And ask (furthermore) as follows: All the adverse circumstances he is in, is it you (i.e. Amen) who has something to reproach him Also question him (Amen) in order to find out, as follows: Will he (Psenamunis) live or die in prison where he is Take care to let us know about the oracles answers concerning him as fast as possible, for his lifes breath is in danger. There may have been a general amnesty on the occasion of the accession to the throne of a pharaoh as the Ptolemaic Instruction of Ankhsheshonq 29 or a paean to Ramses IV seem to suggest: Those who hungered are sated and glad Those who thirsted are filled with drink Those who were naked are clad in the finest linen Those who were dirty shine Those who were in captivity are freed Those who were in fetters rejoice After Jan Assman, Aumlgypten, Theologie und Froumlmmigkeit einer fruumlhen Hochkultur . p.171 though, while Those who fled have returned to their cities are mentioned, there is no reference to those sent into exile. Among the measures announced on the Rosetta Stone by Ptolemy V Epiphanes, c.210-180 BCE, was a decree freeing some prisoners . those who were in prison and those who were under accusation for a long time, he has freed of the charges against them. The Rosetta Stone 13 and towards the end of his reign Ptolemy VIII decreed: King Ptolemaios and Queen Kleopatra the sister and Queen Kleopatra the wife proclaim an amnesty to all their subjects for errors, crimes, accusations, condemnations and charges of all kinds up to the 9th of Pharmouthi of the 52nd year, except to persons guilty of wilful murder or sacrilege. P.Tebt.0005, decrees of King Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, 28th April 118 BCE copied by the village scribe of Kerkeosiris. wwwapp.cc.columbia.eduldpdappapisitemmodeitemampkeyberkeley.apis.263, accessed 17th May 2009 The priesthood, again using the oracle, also gave pardons to offenders. When the statue of Amen was asked whether the banishment to a desert oasis of some convicts should be shortened, it nodded in agreement. By way of the oracle new laws could be enacted, thus banishment was abolished as a punishment under the 21st dynasty: Then he (i.e. the High Priest of Amen, Menkheperre) went again to the great god, saying: O my good lord, thou shalt make a great decree in thy name, that no people of the land shall be banished to the distant region of the oasis, nor. from this day on. Then the god nodded exceedingly. He spake again, saying: Thou shalt say it shall be made into a decree upon a stela. in thy .., abiding and fixed forever. Stela of the Banishment 21st dynasty Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . part IV sect656 Picture sources: Excerpt showing a supervisor beating a worker: Lionel Casson Ancient Egypt Judge Mehu: Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Number 304, 1958 Photograph of the grave robber mummy: Tigertail Virtual Museum . Line drawing of beating: T.G.H. James Pharaos Volk Syrians tied to pillory: ) Georges Poncet Museacutee du Louvre Bibliography: Thomas George Allen: Egyptian Stelae in Field Museum of Natural History, 1936 Jan Assman, Aumlgypten, Theologie und Froumlmmigkeit einer fruumlhen Hochkultur George A. Barton, Archaeology and The Bible Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Number 304, 1958 James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Chicago 1906 Lionel Casson Ancient Egypt . Time-Life Herodotus, Histories II . translated by G.C. Macauley T. G. H. James Pharaos Volk . Artemis 1988 Joseph Kaster, The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt Ranon Katzoff, The Validity of Prefectural Edicts in Roman Egypt . in Artzi, Pinhas (ed.) Bar-Ilan Studies in History, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1978 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volumes 1 to 3, University of California Press, 1973-80 Gaston Maspero, Etudes de mythologie et darcheacuteologie eacutegyptiennes vol. 3, 1898 A. G. McDowell, Village Life in Ancient Egypt: Laundry Lists and Love Songs . Oxford University Press 1999, ISBN 0198149980 E. S. Meltzer ed. Letters from Ancient Egypt . Scholars Press Atlanta, Georgia, 1990 Pierre Montet, Haiey yom-yom bemitzrayim (La vie quotidienne en Egypte), Am Hassefer Publishers Ltd. Tel Aviv, 1963 R. Muumlller-Wollermann, Vergehen und Strafen. Zur Sanktionierung abweichenden Verhaltens im alten Aumlgypten . Brill 2004 Jaroslav Ocernoy, Restitution of, and Penalty attaching to, Stolen Property in Ramesside Times . 1937 David B. OConnor, Eric H. Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign . University of Michigan Press 1998, ISBN 0472088335 Thomas Eric Peet, The Great Tomb-Robberies of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty James B. Pritchard ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament Jacob Rabinowitz, Isle of Fire . invisiblebooks 2004 Ian Shaw, Paul Nicholson, The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt . British Museum Press 1995 Emily Teeter, John A. Larson (eds), Gold of Praise . University of Chicago 1999 Footnotes: 1 The vizier was the supervisor of the Six Great Houses, the main courts of law. During the reign of Pepi I for instance an official called Mery-Teti held a number of offices: He of the curtain, judiciary official and vizier. overseer of scribes of the kings documents, overseer of all the kings works, overseer of the six great law-courts, revered with Osiris, lord of Busiris, revered with Anubis who is on his mountain, overseer of the priests of (the pyramid complex) The Perfection of Pepi Endures. Tomb of Mery-Teti, Saqqara After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae web site During the New Kingdom there were times when there were two viziers, see The Vizierate . 6 The stories of the 20th dynasty criminals are translated from La vie quotidienne en Egypte by Pierre Montet 8 In the light of this, the Hebrew tradition which claims that the Israelites were enslaved in Egypt, seems not to be completely without base. Chances are that like many other tribes they sojourned in Egypt, probably on a number of occasions. A semi-nomadic people, they would not willingly have given up a large part of their time to work for a government they did not regard as their own. What was a not much loved but necessary tax to Egyptians, must have looked very much like slavery to people, who were used to moving on when conditions in a place became unfavourable. 9 The Tale of Sinuhe 11 There are such differences even in the most advanced democratic societies. There still is no equality before the law. But the ancient Egyptians did not pretend there was. 12 Herodotus reports of historic occurrences are just that: reports. He repeats (one hopes faithfully) what he has heard from his Egyptian interlocutors. 13 The Greek Section of the Rosetta Stone 14 Little is known about Egyptian gaols. They were frequently just pits or wells deep enough to prevent an escape. At times a room in a temple, often in the gate building, was used: The Semitic loan word Sar . originally referring to a gate, was employed for prison. Fortified places (xnr.t, jtH) also had this connotation. Feeding people locked up as a punishment was alien to the Egyptian mindset. The only reference to it is in the introduction to the demotic Instruction of Ankhsheshonq dating to the Ptolemaic Period. Debtors were apparently imprisoned at times, possibly to prevent their escape or to force them to pay up, but on the whole the primary purpose of gaols seems to have been to hold prisoners on remand, rather than to incarcerate convicted criminals: He who has not disproved the charge at his hearing, which takes place . , then it shall be entered in the criminal docket. He who is in the great prison, not able to disprove the charge of his (i.e. the viziers) messenger, likewise. From the Regulations Laid upon the Vizier, Rekhmire, 18th dynasty James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Two, sect 683 The Egyptians probably made their prisons as impregnable as possible, but even then gaol-breaks occurred as is reported in a 21st dynasty letter of which only fragments survive, leaving us in the dark about the circumstances: . and they escaped from prison (DdH.w) I. Hafemann ed. Altaumlgyptisches Woumlrterbuch, Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften gt Briefe gt Briefe nach dem Neuen Reich gt VerwaltungAlltag gt Briefe aus El-Hibeh gt pStrasburg 22 II. (Brieffragment) In the afterworld too rebels (sbj.w) - i.e. anybody opposing the will of the gods - were apparently imprisoned. The New Kingdom papyrus Neferubenef promises the deceased that nothing like this would happen to him: You shall not be locked up. You shall not be guarded (as a prisoner) You shall not be imprisoned. You shall not be put in that room in which the rebels are. (pNeferubenef), Tb 169 After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae web site. 15 skins . Ssm . translated by Beinlich as ledernes Gesetzbuch, a statute book made of leather. Lippert on the other hand suggests that the Ssm.w may have been leather whips or rods, symbols for the viziers authority. (Lippert, Sandra, 2012, Law (Definitions and Codification). In Elizabeth Frood, Willeke Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology . Los Angeles. digital2.library.ucla.eduviewItem.doark21198zz002bzzg) 16 Records of the Harem Conspiracy against Ramses III Persons upon whom punishment was executed by cutting off their noses and their ears, because of their forsaking the good testimony delivered to them. The women had gone had arrived at their place of abode, and had there caroused with them and with Peyes. Their crime seized them. This great criminal, Pebes, formerly butler. This punishment was executed upon him he was left (alone) he took his own life. The great criminal, Mai, formerly scribe of the archives. The great criminal, Teynakhte, formerly officer of the infantry. The great criminal, Oneney, formerly captain of the police. James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Four, sect 451ff 17 J.H. Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Four, sect 453 19 J.H. Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Four, sect 551 f. 21 This did not preclude judges from filling other positions in the administration. No conflicts of interest between their judicial and their administrative functions were recognized. 23 judicial precedent: According to the inscriptions in Rekhmires tomb Lo, what one says of the viziers chief scribe: Scribe of Justice one says of him. As to the hall in which you judge. It has a room full of written decisions. M. Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volume II, p.23 or in the words of J. H. Breasted . every act of the vizier, while hearing (cases) in his hall and as for every one who shall. he shall record everything concerning which he hears James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Two, sect 683 These records, unless they were confidential, could be consulted by officials As for any writing sent by the vizier to any hall (i.e. court), being those which are not confidential, it shall be taken to him together with the documents of the keepers thereof under seal of the sDm.w - officers, and the scribes thereof after them then he shall open it then after he has seen it, it shall return to its place, sealed with the seal of the vizier. James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt . Part Two, sect 684 24 Shoufu Jin, Der Furchtsame und der Unschuldige: Uumlber zwei sozio-juristische Begriffe aus dem alten Aumlgypten in Journal of Near Eastern Studies . October 2003, Vol. 62, No. 4: pp. 268-273 25 Interestingly, Djedi protested against experimenting with human beings: But not to a human being, O king, my lord Surely, it is not permitted to do such a thing to the noble cattle (i.e. mankind) The Magician Djedi M. Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volume I, p.219 26 The Shabaka Stone defines justice in terms of deeds that are loved and deeds that are hated, rather than referring to transgressions against the divine will: ltThus justice is donegt to him who does what is loved, ltand punishmentgt to him who does what is hated. Thus life is given to the peaceful, death is given to the criminal. The Shabaka Stone M. Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volume I, p.55 27 In the Instructions for Merikare composed by a member of the scribal class (it is improbable that they were written by the king himself) who was unlikely to have to appear before a judge, the choice of words designating the accused is significant: wretch . and misertable . The Court that judges the wretch, You know they are not lenient, On the day of judging the miserable, In the hour of doing their task. The instruction addressed to king Merikare M. Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volume I, p. 101 28 There are hints of conspiracies in the Instruction of Amenemhet . records of proceedings against the accused in the conspiracy against Ramses III in the Judicial Turin Papyrus, Rollin Papyrus and Lee Papyrus . 29 The introduction to the demotic Instruction of Ankhsheshonq is a tale concerning an assassination attempt against Pharaoh. Ankhsheshonq, the fictional author, had known about the plot but had refused to participate. After their discovery the conspirators were executed and he was sentenced to gaol for failing to inform against the traitors. He was never forgiven. On special occasions there were seemingly general amnesties, but Ankhsheshonq was excluded: . there occurred the accession-day of Pharaoh. Pharaoh released everyone who was (in) the prisons at Daphnae except Ankhsheshonq son of Tjainufi. M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature . Volume III, p.163 30 If mortal judges could not always be relied upon to be impartial, one might at least hope to be judged fairly in the afterworld: Amen-Re who first was king, The god of earliest time, The vizier of the poor. He does not take bribes from the guilty, He does not speak to the witness, He does not look at him who promises, Amun judges the land with his fingers. He speaks to the heart, He judges the guilty, He assigns him to the East, The righteous to the West. P. Anastasi II.6, 5-7 M. Lichtheim Ancient Egyptian Literature . Vol. II, p.111 31 Mafdet. a mongoose goddess, was protectress of Re during the Old Kingdom, decapitating the sun gods enemies with her razor sharp teeth. In New Kingdom tomb scenes she was shown as executioner in the afterlife. The instrument of execution she was associated with was a pole to which a knife had been tied. It may have been used for executions in early times. During the weighing of the heart the demon Ammut waited for the outcome and if the heart of the deceased was found to be too heavy with sin, Ammut would devour it destroying the sinner for eternity. 32 The stela of Sehetepibre at Abydos carries the following warning There is no tomb for one hostile to his majesty But his body shall be thrown to the waters. J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt . Part One, sect 748 33 cf. Judgment of the Dead where every deceased person is judged individually, or the Book of the Dead . O Yebew-Weret, guardian of the slaughter-site of Ras Day of Judgment, today you have said and said again: The butcher-block of justice is ready - you know what to expect. Jacob Rabinowitz, Isle of Fire p.156 invisiblebooks. accessed 5 June 2004 35 Under the Ptolemies royal edicts, the so-called prostagmata . at times carved in stone, often became permanent law and were cited decades later. This tradition was inherited by the Roman prefects governing the province of Egypt. While in Rome and its other provinces edicts were valid only during the time of office of the magistrate, in Egypt they often continued to serve as judicial authority long after. (Katzoff ) 36 Naguib Kanawati, Extreme Physical Punishment In Old Kingdom Scenes in Newsletter No. 93, July 2005 of the Rundle Foundation for Egyptian Archaeology 38 triumphant: deceased 39 R. Muumlller-Wollermann, op.cit. . pp.198f. 40 R. Muumlller-Wollermann, op.cit. . p.293 42 Explicit reference to Maat is rare. The introduction to a record of a civil case heard at Deir el Medina contains the sentence: Let the court of the Necropolis act in conformity with the laws of Maat McDowell, op.cit. . p.166 43 At the same time, the pharaohs were also subject to the law themselves. (cf. The Demedjibtawy decree ) 44 According to R. Muumlller-Wollermann, op.cit. p.197, records of real-life executions do not refer to any other mode of putting to death other than impalement. 45 Burning as punishment appears generally in literary, fictional sources only. But the Libyan pharaoh Osorkon, after putting down a revolt in the Thebaid, had the rebels punished: Then the prisoners were brought to him at once like a bundle of pinioned ones() Then he struck them down for him (Amun), causing them to be carried like goats the night of the feast of the Evening Sacrifice . of the Going Forth of Sothis. Everyone was burned with fire in the place of (his) crime. Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt . Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2002, p.314 The effects burning was thought to have, were expressed in a New Kingdom charm which threatens the cursed one with utter destruction: Neither will you be able to beget, nor will one give birth for you, as you will be killed by fire, which will destroy your ba, so that it cannot roam on earth anymore, so that you cannot wander on the clouds, so that you will not be seen, so that you will not be perceived, because you have been destroyed as your shadow ceases to exist. After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website. K. Stegbauer ed. gt Projekt Digital-Heka, Leipzig gt Schlangenzauber Neues Reich gt Cairo JE 69771 (Statue prophylactique) gt Spruch 8 (Ruumlckseite, 18-26) 48 After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website. G. Vittmann ed. gt Demotische Textdatenbank, Akademie fuumlr Sprache und Literatur Mainz gt administrative und dokumentarische Texte gt Briefe gt Kairo JE 95206 49 Baines, Feuds or vengeance Rhetoric and social forms in Teeter amp Larson 1999, pp.11-20 50 Shaw amp Nicholson 1995, p.159 51 pKairo CG 25095 (pMaiherperi), Tb 125. line 422 on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae web site: Totenbuchprojekt, Nordrhein-Westfaumllische Akademie der Wissenschaften gt pKairo CG 25095 (pMaiherperi) gt Tb 125 52 pLondon BM 10793, Tb 115 (line 24,21) on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae web site: Totenbuchprojekt, Nordrhein-Westfaumllische Akademie der Wissenschaften gt ppLondon BM 10793 gt Tb 115 53 After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website. Altaumlgyptisches Woumlrterbuch, Saumlchsische Akademie der Wissenschaften gt 3. Weisheitslehren gt Neuaumlgyptische Weisheitslehren gt Die Lehre des Amenemope gt 1. pBM EA 10474 gt Die Lehre des Amenemope 54 Breasted 1906, Part Four, sect 437 55 There are no records to prove that forced labour was extracted during the Old Kingdom, while for the Middle Kingdom it is known that people tried to get around fulfilling their duties towards the state, for which they were punished harshly. (Ingelore Hafemann, Dienstverflichtung im alten Aumlgypten waumlhrend des Alten und Mittleren Reiches . Internet-Beitraumlge zur Aumlgyptologie und Sudanarchaumlologie XII, ISBN 978-1906137113) 56 In Chapter 75 of his Historical Library Diodorus Siculus who lived in the first century BCE, describes it as having consisted of judges who were the best men and came from the most important Egyptian cities For from Heliopolis and Thebes and Memphis they used to choose ten judges from each. 57 Siculus mentions the Maat sign worn by the Chief Justice of the Tribunal of Thirty. saying that he regularly wore suspended from his neck by a golden chain a small image made of precious stones, which they called Truth. . Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library . Chapter 75 58 BMJ: Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study accessed at bmjcontent345bmj.e8268 - USAToday: Egyptologist: Ramses III assassinated in coup attempt, accessed at usatodaystorytechsciencefair20121217ramses-ramesses-murdered-bmj1775159 on 18th December 2012 59 Hartwig Altenmuumlller: Verstuumlmmelte Opfertraumlger auf einem Relief aus Abusir in V. G. Callender et al. . Times, Signs and Pyramids. Studies in Honour of Miroslav Verner on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday . Prague 2011, p.1-23Updated January 3, 2017 Gold plates with Phoenician and Etruscan writing Y ou might imagine that something as simple and basic as the alphabet would have been around forever. But of course it hasnt. As you may well know, the elaborate pictures of Egyptian hieroglyphics and the intricate reed-poked-into-clay marks of Mesopotamian cuneiform used to be the way people communicated in writing. Gradually these were simplified into syllable symbols instead of word symbols, but were still fairly daunting and only a few scholars ever learned to write. We are often told that the Phoenicians invented the alphabet, though some debate this. Regardless of who put pen to papyrus to create it, the Phoenician contribution was none-the-less major and critical. They were the major sea-traders of the Mediterranean, and they went everywhere. Every country which had a seashore seems to have done trade with them. When the Phoenicians began using the alphabet as a simple and easy way to keep track of their trades, it was exposed to everyone. And since money and wealth were involved, people were highly motivated to learn the system and make sure it was being accurately written down. This new method proved to be so much better than previous methods that it soon was being used by many people and many languages. It had been given so much momentum that it could not be stopped. First inventions are sometimes a little rough and need to get the bugs worked out, and so it was with this new alphabet which the Phoenicians made popular. It consisted of 22 consonants. but no vowels. The reader was assumed to speak the language, so they would know what sound to put between the consonants. Of course, looking back at their inscriptions a few thousand years later, it is not so obvious. That is one reason why you will see different spellings for the same word or name. The ancient and modern-day translators just did the best they could. Phoenician alphabet -- note their writing reads right to left, and that some symbols were later re-used and made into vowels. Sanford Holst, used here with permission Click for larger The Greeks adopted this Phoenician alphabet, and added vowels to it. The refined combination worked very well. It enabled the philosophy of Socrates and the theater plays of Euripides -- among many other great works of literature -- to be passed down to us. On the Incirli Stela, Greek writing (deep incisions) was cut into the earlier Phoenician text The Etruscans in Italy were familiar with the Phoenician alphabet, as shown on the Pyrgi gold plates at the top and bottom of this page. Their plate on the left was written in Phoenician, and the other one in Etruscan. After the Etruscans adopted and modified the Greek alphabet, they passed it along to Rome. The Romans made their own refinements to it, and this led to the alphabet we use today. A fairly eye-opening account of how -- and why -- the alphabet and early writing came into being is described in the book Phoenician Secrets . In this well researched and intriguing narrative, the mysterious Phoenicians and the ancient Mediterranean are experienced in rich detail. The alphabet did not arise in a vacuum. It was part of a wider social phenomenon that was spreading across the ancient Mediterranean, and reached one of its pinnacles in classical Greece. To fully appreciate the origins and impacts of the early alphabets, it is necessary to see the flow of people and discoveries back and forth across the Mediterranean in those days. Phoenician Secrets is one of the few books to fully capture the many social threads that were woven into this essential human creation. quot Sanford Holst has created a fascinating, accessible and intriguing narrative of the Phoenicians. It explains how the success of trade and necessary inventions, including the alphabet, developed in the civilizations of the Mediterranean . quot Sanford Holsts book should be a quotmust readquot for all those who want to learn the science and art of how a social system not only survives but thrives in an environment of great political, military, cultural, religious, and economic turbulence. Quot. This paperback book is Alphabets in Use The following tablets show how the Phoenician alphabet and Etruscan alphabet were used in actual practice. These inscriptions date from approximately 500 BC. They were found in a temple near ancient Caere in Italy, and describe a dedication made to the Phoenician goddess. Pyrgi Gold Tablets Pyrgi Gold Tablets Origin of the Alphabet For a history of the people known asEarliest History The art of pre dynastic Egypt (c.40003200 B.C. ), known from funerary offerings, consisted largely of painted pottery and figurines, ivory carvings, slate cosmetic palettes, and finely worked flint weapons. In painting, a monumental treatment was given to designs like those drawn in red on buff-colored pottery from Hieraconpolis, a palace city of upper Egypt. Toward the end of the pre dynastic period, sculptors began to carve monolithic figures of the gods from limestone, such as the Min at Coptos. In the proto dynastic and early dynastic periods (32002780 B.C. ) some Mesopotamian motifs began to appear. The craftsmanship of the finely worked stone bowls and vases of these periods is particularly remarkable. Oldest carving in Egypt, as old as 12000 years Art of the Old Kingdom Royal and private statuary, as well as wall paintings and reliefs, reflected the concepts of art that served the cult of the gods, the kings, and the dead. In royal statuary, traditional poses are combined with idealistic features. The statuary was designed to depict royalty as physically strong with softened features, sometimes with touches of realism. This can be traced in the sculpture of King Djoser, the only surviving statuette of King Khufu, the figure of King Khafra in different stones, the schist triads of King Menkaure, and the head of King Userkaf. The private statuary followed the same concepts, but had more freedom in movement and more varieties of poses. Artists created seated scribe statues or figures standing, kneeling, or praying and others busy in domestic works. Examples are the statues of Prince Ra-hotep and his wife Nofret, which look like real humans because of the colors and the inlays of the eyes. The wooden statue of Ka-aper, with a realistic modeling of the features and the body, his other bust, and that of his wife, are additional examples of private statuary. Wall spaces in the tombs and temples began to use reliefs and paintings to depict daily activities in homes, estates, and workshops. There were also scenes of entertainment as well as offerings. Such reliefs and paintings were sometimes executed to depict the activities of working groups, animals, and birds. Sunken or raised relief and paintings were well proportioned and composed with fine details, especially in the Saqqara tombs. With the beginning of the Old Kingdom, centered at Memphis (26802258 B.C. ), there was a rapid development of the stylistic conventions that characterized Egyptian art throughout its history. In relief sculpture and painting, the human figure was usually represented with the head in profile, the eye and shoulders in front view, and the pelvis, legs, and feet in profile (the law of frontality). There was little attempt at plastic or spatial illusionism. The reliefs were very low relief and shallow intaglio are often found in the same piece. Color was applied in flat tones, and there was no attempt at linear perspective. A relief masterpiece from the I dynasty is the palette of Namer (Cairo). It represents animal and human forms in scenes of battle with the ground divided into registers and with emphasis on silhouette in the carving. In statuary in the round various standing and seated types were developed, but there was strict adherence to the law of frontality and a tendency to emphasize symmetry and to minimize suggestion of movement. Outstanding Old Kingdom examples of sculpture in the round are the Great Chephren, in diorite, the Prince Ra-hetep and Princess Neferet, in painted limestone, the Sheik-el-Beled (mayor of the village), in painted wood (all: Cairo), and the Seated Scribe, in painted limestone (Louvre). Probably because of its relative impermanence, painting was little used as a medium of representation it appears to have served principally as accessory to sculpture. A rare example is the painting of geese from a tomb at Medum (Cairo). Religious beliefs of the period held that the happy posthumous existence of the dead depended on the continuation of all phases of their earthly life. The artists task was therefore to produce a statement of reality in the most durable materials at his command. Tombs were decorated with domestic, military, hunting, and ceremonial scenes. Entombed with the deceased were statues of him and of his servants and attendants, often shown at characteristic occupations. The Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom, with its capital at Thebes (20001786 B.C. ), was a new age of experiment and invention that grew out of the turbulence of the First Intermediate Period (2134c.2000 B.C. ). The forms of the Old Kingdom were retained, but the unity of style was broken. Increasing formalism was combined with a meticulous delicacy of craftsmanship. The paintings of the rock-cut tombs at Bani Hasan (e.g. Slaves Feeding Oryxes and Cat Stalking Prey, Tomb of Khnemu-hetep) are outstanding for freedom of draftsmanship. In sculpture the sensitive portraits of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III (both: Cairo) are exceptional in Egyptian art, which at all other times showed a reluctance to portray inner feeling. The New Kingdom The art of the New Kingdom (15701342 B.C. ) can be viewed as the final development of the classic Egyptian style of the Middle Kingdom, a combination of the monumental forms of the Old Kingdom and the drive and inspiration of the Middle Kingdom. The paintings of this period are noted for boldness of design and controlled vitality. In sculpture the emphasis is on bulk, solidity, and impersonality. During the Amarna period (13721350 B.C. ) a free and delicate style developed with many naturalistic tendencies and a new sense of life and movement. In sculpture the new style was carried to the point of caricature, e.g. in the colossal statue of Ikhnaton (Cairo). The outstanding masterpiece of this period is the painted limestone bust of Queen Nefertiti (Berlin Mus.). The delicacy, sophistication, and extreme richness of this style in its late period is best exemplified by the furnishings from the tomb of Tutankhamen. The Ramesside period (13141085 B.C. ) saw an attempt to return to the classic formalism of the earlier New Kingdom, but the vitality that characterized that period could not be recovered. The sculpture, both in relief and in the round, became monotonous and even overbearing except in the numerous battle scenes. The period of decline (1085730 B.C. ) is characterized by mechanical repetition of earlier forms in the major arts and by the introduction of satirical and often cynical drawings in the papyri. In the Sate period (730663 B.C. ) there was an attempt to return to the austerity of the Old Kingdom style, but for the simplicity of the earlier forms a coarse brutality was substituted. After the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrians in 663 B.C. all the arts declined with the exception of metalworking, in which a high standard of skill was maintained. Neither the Assyrian nor the subsequent Persian invasions left a mark on Egyptian art, and even under the Ptolemaic dynasty (33230 B.C. ) Egypt proved extraordinarily resistant to Hellenic conceptions of art. The ancient architectural tradition retained its vitality, as in the temples of Horus at Idfu and Isis at Philae, but painting and sculpture continued to decline. Native naturalism may have influenced the painted Fayum panels and orant (praying) portraits on mummy shrouds, but neither their subjects nor their style is essentially Egyptian. The minor arts, however, continued to flourish alabaster vases, faience pottery and figurines, glassware, ivories, and metalwork were produced with the ancient skill and in the traditional Egyptian style. Relief sculpture and painting For Egyptians the decoration of tomb walls with reliefs or painted scenes provided some certainty of the perpetuation of life in a temple, similarly, it was believed that mural decoration magically ensured the performance of important ceremonies and reinforced the memory of royal deeds. The beginnings of the dynastic tradition can be found in tombs of the 3rd dynasty, such as that of Hesire at Saqqarah it contained mural paintings of funerary equipment and wooden panels carrying figures of Hesire in the finest low relief (Egyptian Museum). Generally speaking, mural decorations were in paint when the ground was mud brick or stone of poor quality, and in relief when the walls were in good stone. Painting and drawing formed the basis of what was to be carved in relief, and the finished carving was itself commonly painted. In tombs the mural decorations might be left unfinished, being only partly sketched or partly carved by the time of the burial. Uncompleted scenes reveal clearly the methods of laying out walls for decoration. The prepared wall was marked out with red guidelines, the grid described earlier being used for major human figures and sometimes for minor ones. Preliminary outlines were corrected and paint was applied usually in tempera, pigments being mostly mineral-based. In the Old Kingdom pure painting of the highest quality is found as early as the 4th dynasty in the scene of geese from the tomb of Nefermaat and Atet at Maydum. But the glory of Old Kingdom mural decoration is the low-relief work in the royal funerary monuments of the 5th dynasty and in the private tombs of the 5th and 6th dynasties in the Memphite necropolis. Outstanding are the reliefs from the sun temple of King Neuserre at Abu Jirab (gyptisches Museum, East and West Berlin) and the scenes of daily life in the tombs of Ptahhotep and Ti at Saqqarah.The tradition of fine painting was continued in the Middle Kingdom. At Beni Hasan the funerary chambers are crowded with paintings exhibiting fine draftsmanship and use of color. The best relief work of the period, reviving the Memphite tradition, is found at Thebes in the tomb of Mentuhotep II at Dayr al-Bahri and in the little shrine of Sesostris I at Karnak, where the fine carving is greatly enhanced by a masterly use of space in the disposition of figures and text. In the early 18th dynasty the relief tradition was revived at Thebes and can best be observed in the carvings in Hatshepsuts temple at Dayr al-Bahri. Later royal reliefs of Amenhotep III and of the post-Amarna kings show a stylistic refinement that was carried to its best in the reign of Seti I, at Karnak, at Abydos, and in his tomb at Thebes. The 18th dynasty also saw Egyptian painting reach its highest achievement in the tombs of the nobles at Thebes. The medium of decoration and an apparently greater artistic freedom led to the introduction of small, often entertaining details into standard scenes. The tiny tombs of Menna and Nakht are full of such playful vignettes. The paintings in great tombs, such as that of Rekhmire, are more formal but still crammed with unusual detail. Fragments of mural and floor paintings from palaces and houses at Thebes and Tell el-Amarna provide tantalizing glimpses of the marsh and garden settings of everyday upper-class life. The fine royal reliefs of the late 18th dynasty were matched by those in private tombs at Thebes (Ramose and Kheruef) and Saqqarah (Horemheb) these are breathtaking in execution and, in the case of Horemheb, both moving and original. Interest in relief subsequently passed to the work in the temples of the 19th and 20th dynasties. The most dramatic subject was war, whether the so-called triumph of Ramses II at Kadesh (Thebes and Abu Simbel), or the more genuine successes of Ramses III against the Libyans and the Sea Peoples (Madinat Habu). The size and vitality of these ostentatious scenes are stupendous, even if their execution tends to be slapdash. The artistic renaissance of the 25th and 26th dynasties is less evident in painting and relief than in sculpture. Although the fine work in the tomb of Montemhat at Thebes is distinctly archaizing, it is, nevertheless, exceptional in quality. The skills of the Egyptian draftsman, nurtured by centuries of exercise at large and small scale, remained highly professional. This skill is seen at its most consistent level in the illumination of papyruses. The practice of including drawings, often painted, in religious papyruses flourished from the time of the 18th dynasty and reached a high point around 1300 BC. The peak of achievement is probably represented by the Book of the Dead of the scribe Ani (British Museum), in the vignettes of which both technique and the use of color are outstanding. Subsequently, and especially in the Late Period, pure line drawing was increasingly employed. The earliest Egyptian art is very different from that of the pyramids and temples of the Pharaonic period. As early as the eighth millennium BC, the first inhabitants of the Nile Valley began to make engraved drawings on the cliffs, particularly in Upper Egypt and Nubia. They depicted the fundamentals of their lives, from wild game and hunting scenes in the earlier times to river boats and herds of cattle in the early Neolithic period. The art of the Predynastic period has survived mainly in the form of small carved stone and ivory grave goods, together with pottery vessels, placed alongside the deceased in simple pit burials. The small votive figures of people and animals include many female statuettes made of pottery and ivory, whose exaggerated sexual characteristics suggest that they probably related to early fertility cults. Some of the painted scenes on pottery vessels continue, during the Predynastic period. to reflect the prehistoric rock-carvings, while others begin to display the styles and preoccupations of the Dynastic period. In the final stages of the Predynastic period, a range of unusual ceremonial artifacts, including maces, palettes and ivory handled flint knives, began to play an important role in the emerging religious ritual and social hierarchy. Many of the more elaborate mace heads and palettes, such as those of the kings named Scorpion and Narmer. were discovered in a deposit of the temple at Hierakonpolis. and though the archaeological circumstances of their discovery are poorly documented, they were apparently meant as votive offerings. Their carved decoration appears to summarize the important events of the year in which they were offered to the god. However, it is unclear whether any of the scenes depicting historical events are real, or simply generalized representations of myth and ritual. In fact, this would be a problem with Egyptian art throughout the ages. A number of references on ancient Egypt insinuate that the Egyptians had no concept of the term, art. Indeed, we know of no word from the ancient Egyptian language that exactly conforms to our abstract use of the word. They did have words for their creations that we today regard as examples of Egyptian art, such as statues, stelas and tombs, but we have no reason to believe that these words necessarily included an aesthetic dimension in their meaning. Though the ancient Egyptians built and decorated their monuments, and cut their statues first and foremost for religious functionality, this does not mean that the Egyptians were not aware of and did not aim for an aesthetic content. To represent was, in a way, to create, and Egyptian representation in both two and three dimensions was meant to create images that would function as a meaningful part of the cult of the gods and the dead. Statues were objects in which deities could manifest themselves, while images of the dead ensured their survival in the next world and formed a point of contact between this and the next domains, where the deceased could receive the offerings of the living. Depictions of temple cult ceremonies ensured their enactment for all time, and portrayals of offering goods meant that these items would be available in the next world. Furthermore, images of protective deities found in houses, on furniture and made into amulets created a powerful shield against the malign forces of the universe. Most of what we see of ancient Egyptian art, at museums or in books, are pieces that appeal to modern aesthetic tastes. Yet they represent only a selection of surviving Egyptian material and are usually pieces produced under royal patronage. For each of these pieces, there are many, many others collecting dust in museum reserve collections that are not so finely made. These latter items may demonstrate poor workmanship, unbalanced compositions, awkward proportions or clumsy execution, but they were came from the more common Egyptians. Though these items lack the artistic quality of the more accomplished works, they must have still been thought to have functioned for the benefit of their owners. Hence, we must ask ourselves why those of power sought out the best artists, if not for their superior artistic abilities. And we must also question Egyptologists who tell us that art completely surrounded Egyptian religion. for it did not, nor may it have always served a specific function. We find, in tombs of common Egyptians, sometimes intricate scenes of daily life that seemingly have really very little mortuary functionality, but we also find designs on pottery and other items that today we would call art, and appear to have no further function than to adorn the pottery, making it more appealing. Indeed, while the ancient Egyptians may not have had an abstract word to denote art in general, they did appreciate fine designs and well decorated objects. However, it should also be pointed out that artists in ancient Egypt were very different than their modern counterparts. In ancient Egyptian society. conformity and not individualism was encouraged, and there was hardly a place for an artist with a personal vision that broke the accepted norms. In fact, Egyptian artists usually worked in teams and according to strict guidelines, even though their works might be highly regarded. This does not mean that artists could not experiment and innovate within certain limits. Many of the fundamentals of Egyptian art were established at the very beginning of Egyptian history and changed little over time. Subject matter also remained relatively unchanged over long periods of time. However, Egyptian art did not remain completely static over the three thousand years of pharaonic history. Despite the limited repertory of subject matter, Egyptian artists valued variation and avoided producing exact copies of the same forms. To understand most of the Egyptian artwork that we see in museums and books, we must understand that it was produced by elite Egyptians, mostly for specific functions, and that it was an integral part of their world view. It is important that we understand the purpose of the artwork, or the concepts that shaped it, because a lack of such information has often led people to unfavorably compare it to the art of other cultures. For example, while the ancient Egyptians produced sculptures that were intricately detailed and lifelike in many ways, they never turned the body and twisted it through space as we find in classical Greek statuary. Egyptian artists sometimes got left and right quotmuddled, and never seem to have discovered the rules of geometric perspective as European artists did in the Renaissance. In fact, such shortcomings had little if anything to do with the ability of the artists, and everything to do with the purpose for which they were producing their art. Egyptian art was not intended to merely imitate or reflect reality, but to replace and perpetuate it. Hence, for example, the religious ritual known as quot the opening of the mouth quot was not just performed by Egyptian funerary priest on the mummy of the deceased, but also on his or her statuary. Egyptian art was concerned above all with ensuring the continuity of the universe, the gods, the king and the people. The artists therefore depicted things not as they saw them but as idealized symbols intended to be more significant and enduring than was otherwise possible in the real world. The best, most inspired Egyptian art therefore blends the real with the ideal. The essential elements of art during the Old Kingdom were the funerary sculpture and painted reliefs of the royal family and the provincial elite. One of the most impressive statues to come from this period is the diorite figure of the seated Khafra. builder of the second pyramid at Giza. On the simplest level, the statue is a portrait of a powerful individual, but is also made up of symbols that relate to the general role of the pharaoh. His head and neck are physically embraced by the wings of a hawk representing the protective god, Horus. who was also the divine counterpart of the mortal ruler. His throne is decorated on either side with a complex design consisting of the hieroglyph meaning quotunionquot tied up with the tendrils of the plants of Upper and Lower Egypt, all of which symbolizes the unified state over which he ruled. In the same manner, an alabaster statue of the 6th Dynasty ruler Pepi I has the rear of the throne carved to imitate a serekh with Horus perched on the top. After the Old Kingdom. centralized power within Egypt declined into what we refer to as the First Intermediate Period. This decline in power resulted in a period when provincial workshops at sites such as el-Moalla and Gebelein began to create distinctive funerary decoration and equipment rather than being influenced by the artists at the royal court, as they were earlier during the Old Kingdom and later during the Middle Kingdom. During the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian art is exemplified both by the fragments of reliefs from the royal pyramid complexes at Dahshur, el-Lisht, el-Lahun and Hawara, and by the spacious tombs of the governors buried at Beni Hassan in Middle Egypt. In the latter, the traditional scenes of the deceased receiving offerings or hunting and fishing in the marshes are joined by large depictions of wrestling and warfare, perhaps copied from Old Kingdom royal prototypes. The history of the Middle Kingdom is very much characterized by a tension between the artistic styles of the various provincial sites and the styles of the royal workshops at Itjtawy, the new capital established near el-Lisht. Only by the late Middle Kingdom does the distinctive provincial styles become eclipsed by the art of the royal workshops. After the Middle Kingdom. Egypt was ruled for a period of time by Asiatics, who gained control of a considerable area of the country. The works of art surviving from this phase show that the foreign rulers simply re-used and copied traditional Egyptian sculptures and reliefs in order to strengthen their claims to the throne. After these foreign rulers were expelled, Egypt entered one of its most grand periods, the New Kingdom. The grand art of this period actually varied considerably so that we have the very formal art found in the great temples such as Karnak and Luxor. the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. and the private artisans tombs at Deir el-Medina. with their intimate details. Art during this period also varied because of radical religious changes, such as the Amarna period which resulted in a dramatic change in art styles. After the New Kingdom. the rapidly changing artistic styles of the first millennium BC demonstrate that Egyptian art could assimilate new possibilities while retaining its essential character and integrity. During the Late Period. when Egypt had really already lost much of its prestige, Egyptians attempted to revive the classic images of the Old and Middle Kingdom. which must have symbolized a lost sense of stability and certainly. Then, after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander The Great. the nature of Pharaonic art was adapted to create a compromise between the needs of the native Egyptians and the preferences of the New Greek, and later Roman rulers. Though from this period we have some of the largest surviving religious buildings, the reliefs were beginning to appear mass produced and repetitive, and the artwork was increasingly poorly formulated and executed. However, at the same time, there were new cultural elements absorbed from the Mediterranean word, such as the Fayoum mummy paintings. Most all three-dimensional representations, whether standing, seated or kneeling, exhibit what is called frontality. That is, they face straight ahead, even though at times they may be striding. Were it not for our understanding of their purpose, it might be easy to criticize their rigidity that remained unchanged for three thousand years, particularly when viewed outside of their original context. However, such statues were not produced as pure art, but rather to play a primary role in the cults of the gods. kings and the dead. They were places in which these beings could manifest themselves in order to be the recipients of ritual actions. Hence, it made perfect sense to show the statue looking forward at what was happening in front of it, so that the living could interact with the divine or deceased recipient. Furthermore, such statues were very frequently enclosed in rectangular shrines or wall niches with an opening only in the front, making it natural for the statue to display frontality. Other statues were frequently placed in pillared courts, where they would typically be situated between pillars, and frontality worked perfectly for this context as well. Most of the statues produced in ancient Egypt were made of stone, wood or metal. Stone statues were produced usually from a single rectangular block. Stone between the arms and the body, as well as between the legs in standing figures or the legs and the seat in seated ones, was commonly not cut away, adding to the strength of the physical sculpture. This method also added to the image of strength and power of the being depicted, and frequently the statue was quotengagedquot to the front of a pillar or column which added to this effect. Wooden statues, on the other hand, were generally carved from several pieces of wood and pegged together, while metal statues were either made by wrapping sheet metal around a wooden core or cast by the lost wax process. In these, the arms were sometimes held away from the body and could carry separate items in their hands. However, though wooden and metal sculptures have a completely different effect, altogether lighter and freer than their stone counterparts, they still display frontality. There was one other type of statuary aside from those depicting deities, kings and other elite members of society. These small statuettes depicted generic figures, frequently servants, from the non-elite population. Their function varied considerably from other statues, for these were made to put in tombs of the elite in order to serve the tomb owner in the afterlife. These funerary figurines depict a wide range of actions, from grinding grain to making music, while some are simply standing figures, depending on the time frame in which they were produced. They were not used in any cult, and are not meant to help perpetuate the existence of a particular person. In effect, they are merely a component of the overall funerary equipment placed in tombs for the benefit of the owner. Unlike formal statues, these were not limited to static poses. Depending on the activity in which they are engaged, they may be bending or squatting or take another position suitable to their work. In fact, it is the action and not the figure itself that is important. Producing the three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface is very different than working with statuary. In a number of cultures, artists have found ways by which to obtain the illusion of the third dimension, adding depth to their work, while in others the two-dimensionality of the drawing surface has been accepted and even exploited. The ancient Egyptians belong to this latter group. Rather than attempting to create the appearance of depth, they instead arranged the objects they wished to depict over the flat drawing surface. Such objects were drawn using their most characteristic and easily recognized aspect, usually in profile, full view, plan or elevation. Because these different views can occur together in the same picture plane, the result is not rendered as though from a single viewpoint. Rather, it is a composite assemblage containing information that can be interpreted by the educated viewer. The human figure was usually formed from a composite built up from its individual parts. Hence, the head may be shown in profile, though with a full view of the eyebrow and eye set into it. The shoulders of formal figures are most usually shown frontally, while the waist, buttocks and limbs are in profile. Normally, the nipple on male figures and the breast on females are drawn in profile on the front line of the body, while items that lie on the chest such as collars, necklaces, pectorals and clothing are shown in full frontal view on the expanse of the torso framed by the front and back lines of the body. The navel is shown full view and is placed inside the front line of the body at the appropriate level. Prior to the 18th Dynasty. the two feet are depicted identically from the inside, showing the big toe and the arch. Later, the near foot was increasing shown from the outside with all the toes showing. Even when the figures on the walls of Egyptian tombs and temples are acting out myths, rituals and historical events, they are nevertheless carved or painted with the stiffness and formality of hieroglyphs. The ancient Egyptians sought order in their world, and it was also fundamental to their art. Only when the concept of chaos was intended, were figures placed haphazardly on the drawing surface. Otherwise, they were set within a system of registers, the lower border of which acted as the ground line for the figures within the register. The position of figures within a scene could be determined by the viewer according to several rules. Objects could be overlapped within the register, which means that the object partially covered by another is farther away. Items higher up in the register are further away than those lower down. The hierarchical ordering of society was reflected in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional art by scale. Hence, the kings figure is usually the same size as the gods whom he interacts with, though larger than his queen, children or subjects. Whether in two or three-dimensions, Egyptian art was usually combined with text. Short captions might describe the figures depicted and the actions taking place, while longer texts included requests for offerings for the dead, hymns to deities, works spoken by deities to the king, etc. The hieroglyphic texts within any scene typically formed an integral part of the whole composition. Because the blocks of hieroglyphic texts was often set against representational elements, the composition would lack balance without them. In fact, hieroglyphs were small images drawn according to the principles that underlie Egyptian two dimensional art. Nevertheless, the images often do not resemble the objects that they describe, but are phonetic, representing different consonantal sounds in the Egyptian language. However, other hieroglyphs are logographic, representing literally or metaphorically an object or idea. Interestingly, hieroglyphs can act as determinatives. That is, they are placed at the ends of individual words to quotdeterminequot a category. For example, the name of a man may be followed by an image of a man identifying the word as a mans name. However, so clearly connected is art and hieroglyphs that when a figure is identified by its name in hieroglyphs. the expected determinative is usually omitted because the picture the name identifies acts as its determinative. Usually, the orientation of scenes in two dimensional art for hieroglyphs and figures was facing to the right. However, it was not uncommon for both to also face left, dictated by the circumstances, or for the hieroglyphs to be written in horizontal lines or vertical columns. Of course, this allowed for considerable versatility and subtlety when combining text with depictions. Usually, hieroglyphs faced the same direction as the figures they refer to, and in fact, the art was intended to be read like an elaborate code much like the hieroglyphic text. The mediums with which Egyptian artists worked were varied. One of the most easily obtained was limestone, which composed the cliffs to either side of much of the Nile Valley. Other common soft stone materials included calcite (Egyptian Alabaster), a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, sandstone, schist and greywacke. Harder stones included quartzite (a crystalline form of sandstone), diorite, granodiorite, granite and basalt. Stone was almost always used in royal free standing and rock cut temples and tombs after the earliest periods. It was also used to make statues, stelae, offering tables, libation bowls, vessels and other ritual equipment. Soft stone, whether cut in place such as a rock cut tomb, or carved into blocks as in free standing temples. was usually covered by plaster prior to being decorated. Paint was sometimes also applied to hard stone, but often it was left visible for its symbolism. Hence, black stone such as granodiorite was representative of the life giving black silt left by the Nile inundation. thus symbolizing new life, resurrection and the resurrected god of he dead, Osiris. Red, brown, yellow and gold were associated with the sun, and so stones of those colors, such as red and brown quartzite and red granite, symbolized the sun. Green stone referred to fresh, growing vegetation, new life, resurrection and Osiris as well, who sometimes appears with black skin and sometimes green. Limestone and other soft stones were carved with copper chisels and stone tools. Hard stones were worked by hammering and grinding them with tools made of even harder stone together with sand, which is basically quartz, acting as an abrasive. Stone vessels were hollowed out using drills with copper bits, together with an abrasive. These tools were also used to apply details and inscriptions to hard stone monuments. Afterwards, the finished object was polished with a smooth rubbing stone. If the stone was to be painted, the surface had to be smoothed and any holes in the stone or joints between blocks filled in with plaster. Scenes on stone surfaces were often cut into relief before painting (or when not painted at all). There were two main types of reliefs, consisting of raised and sunk relief. In both, chisels were used to cut around the outlines of figures. Then, in raised relief, the stone of the background was cut away, so that the figures were left standing out from the surface. In sunk relief, it was the figures that were cut back within their outlines, leaving the surface of the background at a higher level. In both methods, the figures were modeled to a greater or lesser extent within their outlines. Traditionally, sunk relief was used on outside walls and raised relief on interior walls, because bright sunlight has the effect of flattening raised relief and enhancing sunk relief. It should be noted that such work could also be applied to plastered surfaces on soft stone. In Theban tombs which were often simply painted, as opposed to relief-cut, rock cut walls, the walls were first covered with mud that was then plastered before painting. Treated similarly to soft stone, mudbrick was used in houses, palaces and other public buildings. And like the walls in Theban tombs. the mud was prepared for decoration with a layer of plaster. Prior to actually painting the prepared surfaces of stone or plaster over stone or mudbrick, scenes were laid out by first marking off the area to be decorated and then drawing in the initial sketches in red, to which corrections were often made in black, probably by the master draughtsman in charge of the project. Squared grids were introduced at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. Used to assist the artist in obtaining the proper proportions of their figures and often also to lay out the composition as a whole, the grids were drawn out on the surface before the scene was sketched in. The lines of the grid were either drawn against a straight edge, or more commonly made with a string that was dipped in red paint and stretched taut across the surface before being snapped against it like a modern chalk line. The sketches were drawn with brushes, similar to those that were used by scribes. They were made from fine reeds that were trimmed at one end to an angle and chewed or split to fray the fibers. For the actual application of paint, thicker brushes were made from fibrous wood such as palm ribs, or from bundles of twigs tied together that were than beaten at one end to separate the fibers and make a course brush. Pigments for paint came primarily from minerals that occur naturally in Egypt and the surrounding desert. White was usually made from calcium carbonate (whiting) or calcium sulphate (gypsum). However, huntite, which was already in use during the Middle Kingdom. and which became common during the New Kingdom. produced a more intense white. It was frequently used to paint white areas, such as clothing, so that it would stand out against the less white background of calcium carbonate. Black was produced from one of several forms of carbon, most commonly soot or charcoal. Ochre (iron oxide) could produce a range of colors from light yellow to dark brown depending on the level of hydration. It was frequently used for reds and yellows. During the New Kingdom. realgar was also used for red, but is unstable in light, and has often degraded over time to yellow. Orpiment was used from the Middle Kingdom onward to obtain a very bright yellow that was used to simulate gold. However, it fades in light to a dull off-white so that its effect is often lost. Jarosite was also used to produce a pale yellow. The artists used different yellow pigments side by side, showing that they were not mere substitutes for each other. Blue was sometimes provided from azurite (copper carbonate), which over time becomes green as it changes to malachite, another form of copper carbonate. However, Egyptian blue was more common, which consisted of a compound made from heating quartz, ground malachite and calcium carbonate together. Different shades of blue were obtained according to the way in which the resulting compound was ground for use, since the finer the grain the paler the blue. Green rather than blue could be produced if the proportions of malachite and calcium carbonate were varied. However, green was more frequently made from naturally occurring malachite. Sometimes, the pigments were mixed together to make different colors prior to application. For example, black might be mixed with white to obtain gray, or red and white to make pink. Pigments were prepared by grinding them on a hard stone mortar before mixing them with a medium such as plant gum or animal glue. Paint was laid on in flat washes, pigment by pigment, so that painters mixed as much of one color as they needed, painted in all the appropriate areas, and then moved on to another color. However, colors could also be painted over one another in layers to obtain different color effects. The final stage of painting was to outline figures and add interior details with a fine brush. Many details in relief work and on statues were often only added in paint and not cut into the stone. No discussion of stone art would be complete without reference to Ostracons, rock fragments that were used for various purposes. They were generally discarded fragments, which were frequently used to draw plans and sketch out drawings. However, some of the most interesting artwork ever produced in Egypt were recorded on their small surfaces, usually by craftsman, but also by anyone else. They were the scratchpads of ancient Egypt, used by the common man to do the ancient equivalent of doodling. As such, there were no real rules that applied and so we find a completely unique art form known perhaps no where else in Egypt other than perhaps the graffiti drawn on the faces of cliffs. Even though Egypt has very little wood. there is nevertheless a long tradition of working with this material. Most Egyptian timber consists of tamarisk, acacia and Sycamore figs, wood that tends to be irregular, small and knotted, at least in comparison to the coniferous wood imported from Syria. However, Egyptian artisans became skilled at piecing together uneven lengths of native Egyptian wood in order to build furniture, chests, coffins and even statues. Wood was shaped with chisels and adzes and the surface smoothed down with rubbing stones. Sometimes the surface of these objects were plastered over and painted, but on good quality wood, paint was sometimes applied to the wood itself. Egyptians worked with metals for earlier than many realize. There are scenes in Old Kingdom tomb depicting metal working, and we know that they used copper from during the earliest periods, arsenic bronze (copper and arsenic) from the late Old Kingdom, and bronze (copper and tin) from the later Middle Kingdom. Gold and silver were also highly prized as precious metals, though initially silver was very rare. In addition to wood and stone, linen could also be plastered and painted to make decorated funerary and votive cloths. Alternating layers of linen and plaster were used to build up car tonnage, from which painted funerary masks. coffins and mummy wrappings were manufactured. We must also mention papyrus paper as a medium. It was primarily used as a writing surface for a wide range of administrative, economic, literary and ritual documents, but it was also used for other purposes. Specifically, papyrus was used for the production of funerary texts, such as versions of the Book of the Dead. which also included illustrations drawn and painted with the fine scribal brush. Other non-funerary papyrus were also sometimes painted or sketched upon with little or no text. Metal was used in the production of statues, temple fittings and cult implements, jewellery and funerary equipment. Both silver and gold were used to product cult statues, which were then frequently inlaid with materials such as precious stones. Obviously, many of these statues did not survive, for they were repeatedly melted down for their valuable metal and stones. Gold and Silver were not used in religious statuary simply because of their value, but also because of the symbolism associated with these metals. Gold was considered the flesh of the gods, particularly the sun god, and silver was the material from which the bones of the gods were made. Furthermore, silver was associated with the moon, so lunar disks on statues were sometimes made from this material. The Egyptians also manufactured a material which we often call Egyptian faience or glazed composition. Faience consists of a quartz core with a glazed surface. The material could be modeled and molded, and because it was inexpensive, this material was used to mass produce many small objects such as statuettes, amulets, rings and ear studs. It was often made to imitate stone and used as a substitute for that material. The color of the glaze depended on additions to the basic mixture. One of the most common colors was a blue-green, imitating turquoise, which was associated with the important goddess, Hathor. sometimes known as the quotLady of Turquoisequot. Also, the ancient Egyptian word for faience was tjehenet, from the root tjehen, meaning quotto dazzle or gleamquot. Hence, the material also had a solar symbolism. It seems that no matter where you go in Egypt you will always be surrounded by its beauty and art. As you get closer to the monuments and pyramids of the great Pharaohs, youll find statues of all sorts that surround the entrances, as well as contained within. Of these statues you will notice several common characteristics from the way they face and are positioned, to the way they are sized and depicted. The combination of geometric regularity is characteristic of all ancient Egyptian art which was often described as cubed and constrained. Its purpose was to keep alive the history of the individual and give eternal life to the Pharaohs. The divine nature of the rulers evolved the art of sculpture. In order for the people to be able to see what they worship, statues became the most important symbol of divinity. Enormous sculptures where built up to represent famous Pharaohs and their queens. Most sculptures depicted the individual as eternally young and beautiful, staring straight ahead, their gaze lost in contemplation. To the uninformed tourist the statues, paintings and architectural forms seem to fall into place as if they obeyed one law. No one seemed to want anything different. The artist was never told to be original. On the contrary, he was graded and praised for how precise his work was and how exact it resembled the past statues. The goal seemed to be completeness, the task to preserve everything as clearly as possible. Needles to say, Egyptian art changed very little. Another major component of Egyptian statues lies in the fact that they had to adhere to strict rules. These were a set of very strict laws, which every artist had to follow. Seated statues had to have their hands on their knees statues of males had to be made using darker materials than females. This was mostly because of the socio-economic structure of the males having a darker complexion from being outside all day. There were only three options for statue figures. People could either stand, sit, or kneel. This was because artists did not free the sculpted form from the block of stone. As they were primarily to be viewed from the front, the images and symbols of the hieroglyphs, were clearly and accurately carved in stone. The finished product was more or less an idealized manner, the way the individual would have wanted to be for the rest of their eternal lives. Aside from the position, there was an emphasis on the size of the individual. This was to show the divinity, or the social status and power of the Pharaoh. However powerful his queen, she was most often depicted rather small, barely taller than a child. These children were easily recognizable simply by the fact that they were depicted naked. Nudity indicated the young age an innocence of the child. However, adults were sometimes depicted naked, but more so as a symbol of rebirth in the afterlife, more commonly found in the case of a funeral statue. Children were depicted with their index finger on their lower lip, a side lock of a braid of hair worn usually at one side. Representations of older children were fully clothed and usually wore a wig, marked by a second hairline. Although older, these children were still depicted smaller than their parents, sometimes barely knee- high - of course you have to remember that none of Egyptian art is based proportionately. For 3000 years the Ancient Egyptian people practiced an art form and style that is almost immediately recognizable as Egyptian. In those 3000 years there was almost no change in the style, meaning of color, or meaning of body placement in a painting, with the exception of the Armarna Period. To the untrained eye it would seem that the Egyptians were a people of little imagination to continue a style for so long, however to those who know anything about Ancient Egyptian art the story is quite complex. Egyptians used a special code of colors in each painting they did, with each color representing a different quality of the people represented. There were six colors the Ancient Egyptians used in their paintings red, green, blue, yellow, black, and white. They made these colors of mineral compounds and that is why they have lasted so long. The color green was symbolic of new life, growth, vegetation, and fertility. Depictions of Osiris often show him with green skin. Red was the color of power it symbolized life and victory, as well as anger and fire. Red was associated with the god Isis and her blood, which red could also represent. It also represented the God Set who was considered evil and who caused storms. The color blue was the color of the heavens and the water and it symbolized creation and rebirth. The god Amun, who played a part in the creation of the world, is depicted with a blue face. Anything yellow symbolized the eternal and indestructible, the qualities of the sun and gold. It was the color of Ra and of all the pharaohs, which is why the sarcophagi and funeral masks were made of gold to symbolize the eternalness of the pharaoh who was now a god. The color of death was black. Black also represented the underworld and the night. Both the gods Anubis and Osiris were depicted in black as the gods of the embalming and the afterlife respectively. Lastly white was the color of purity, it symbolized all things sacred and simple. Normally used in religious objects and tools used by the priests. The same way that the colors of Egyptian art meant something so did the position of the figures represented. The figures were usually shown motionless or only walking. See historylink101lessonsarthistorylessonsegyptmain2.htm for an idea of the common positions and their meanings. There are a few other identifying features of Ancient Egyptian art that are common throughout time. In nearly all paintings the heads of the people were represented from the side with one eye staring out of the side of the face. The arms and legs of the person are also in profile but the mid-body is facing forward. This made the figure look twisted into a position nearly impossible to achieve in reality. Another aspect of the Ancient Egyptian painters was to depict the gods, pharaohs, or other important figures as larger than the other people in the painting to signify their higher importance. So although it may seem strange to us that the Egyptians didnt change their style for so long it did have a reason. The lack of change, especially in painting commissioned by the pharaoh, connect each ruler to the last and was seen as evidence of that they belonged in this continuing line.
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